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Table 4 Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) for doing no recreational walking by income, adjusted for neighbourhood perceptions and individual cognitions.

From: Socioeconomic differences in lack of recreational walking among older adults: the role of neighbourhood and individual factors

   Model 1 (base model): income + age + sex Model 2: base
+ neighbourhood
Model 3: base
+ individual
Model 4: base
+ neighbourhood
+ individual
Income % no walking OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
1 – low (n = 303) 35.7 1.40 (0.98–2.01) 1.34 (0.94–1.91) 1.03 (0.73–1.47) 1.01 (0.71–1.42)
2 – (n = 535) 30.3 1.10 (0.81–1.49) 1.09 (0.80–1.48) 0.94 (0.70–1.27) 0.93 (0.69–1.26)
3 – (n = 515) 27.8 0.81 (0.60–1.10) 0.81 (0.60–1.10) 0.77 (0.57–1.05) 0.77 (0.57–1.05)
4 – high (n = 429) 29.4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
5 – don't want to say/don't know (n= 243) 36.6 1.32 (0.97–1.81) 1.31 (1.05–1.63) 1.16 (0.85–1.58) 1.15 (0.84–1.56)
Neighbourhood perceptions      
My neighbourhood is unattractive      
   disagree    1.00   1.00
   agree    1.31 (1.05–1.63)   1.19 (0.95–1.50)
Individual cognitions      
Attitude towards regular physical activity      
   positive     1.00 1.00
   neutral     1.11 (0.86–1.43) 1.10 (0.85–1.42)
   negative     2.32 (1.61–3.34) 2.28 (1.59–3.28)
Social influences for regular physical activity      
   positive     1.00 1.00
   neutral     1.22 (0.99–1.51) 1.23 (1.001.51)
   negative     1.53 (1.10–2.11) 1.53 (1.10–2.12)
Perceived behaviour control to be regularly active      
   (very) sure     1.00 1.00
   not sure/unsure     1.25 (0.98–1.59) 1.24 (0.97–1.57)
   (very) unsure     1.55 (1.09–2.20) 1.55 (1.09–2.19)
Intention to be regularly active      
   (very) likely     1.00 1.00
   maybe     1.32 (1.00–1.75) 1.31 (0.99–1.74)
   (very) unlikely     2.43 (1.65–3.57) 2.43 (1.65–3.57)
Random effects a      
Level-2 variance (SE)   0.000 (0.000) 0.000 (0.000) 0.000 (0.000) 0.000 (0.000)
  1. a Weighted multilevel models were estimated with the iterative generalized least squares procedure implemented in MlwiN version 2.02.