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Table 2 Outcome effects* and validity scores of reviewed studies

From: Computer-tailored physical activity behavior change interventions targeting adults: a systematic review

Study Dietary Behavior Physical activity Weight reduction Internal validity (%) External validity (%)
Physical activity
Hurling (2007) [21]   +a   89 44
Marcus (2007) [22]   +b (6 months only, not maintained at 12 months)   89 56
Spittaels (2007b) [24]   +b   56 78
Steele (2007) [25]   (+)a   89 44
Marshall (2003) [31]   (+)c(sub) (for those not active at baseline only)   78 67
Napolitano (2003) [32]   +b   67 44
Hager (2002) [34]   (+)d+e(sub) (for males only)   56 39
Pinto (2002) [35]   +f (3 months only, not maintained at 6 months)   67 67
Combined physical activity, dietary behavior &/or weight reduction
Booth (2008) [19] (+) fat onlyf (+)f (+)f 56 67
Cook (2007) [20] (+)g (overall diet including fat) (+)g (+)g 67 33
Spittaels (2007a) [23]   (+)dh (+)dh & +dh(sub) 78 72
Vandelanotte (2005 & 2007) (6 month post-test) [27] + fatb +b   44 56
(2 yr follow-up) [26] (+) fath (+)h    
Winett (2007) [28] + fibre, F&Vb Mb +b (3 months only, not maintained at 6 months) 89 61
Hageman (2005) [29]   M-d +/-d 78 56
Kypri (2005) [30] + F&Vb +b   56 39
Veverka (2003) [33]   ND +b 78 39
  1. Key:
  2. + significant difference over time between treatment & control group OR significant difference between groups at post-test
  3. (+) significant difference within groups over time but no significant difference between groups
  4. +/- conflicting results
  5. M positive effects on behavior mediators but not on actual behavior
  6. M – negative effects on behavior mediators
  7. (sub) outcome effect only for sub sample (1 worksite, n = 57)
  8. ND no difference
  9. *Outcome effects are reported for the effect of the computer-tailored intervention group as compared to the following control groups:
  10. a Tailored (personal) verbal
  11. b No treatment control group
  12. c Tailored print comparison group
  13. d Generic computerized comparison group
  14. e Computerized comparison group with different method of tailoring
  15. f Comparison treatment group on different/additional targeted behavior
  16. g Generic print comparison group
  17. h Comparison group of lower intensity