Skip to main content

Table 3 Standardized factor loadings and uniquenesses for final re-specified individual-level and neighborhood-level measurement models of the NEWS and NEWS-A (in brackets).

From: Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A)

   Individual-level Blockgroup-level
  Item SL SU LF SL SU LF
1 Shopping at local stores .66 (-) .56(-) IL1 (-) .75 (-) .44 (-) BL1 (-)
2 Stores within easy walking distance .85 (.63) .28 (.61) IL1 (IL1A) .95 (.95) .09 (.09) BL1 (BL1A)
3 Parking difficult Single item .46 (.40) .79 (.84) BL1 (BL1A)
4 Many places within walking distance .68 (.91) .54 (.17) IL1 (IL1A) .90 (.90) .19 (.19) BL1 (BL1A)
5 Easy to walk to a transit stop .31 (.30) .90 (.90) IL1 (IL1A) .83 (.83) .31 (.31) BL1 (BL1A)
6 Hilly streets Single item .99 (.70) .02 (.51) BL2 (BL2A)
7 Major barriers to walking Single item .34 (.49) .89 (.76) BL2 (BL2A)
8 Few cul-de-sacs Single item .60 (.56) .64 (.69) BL1 (BL1A)
9 Short distance between intersections .34 (.37) .88 (.86) IL2 (IL2A) .86 (.88) .26 (.22) BL1 (BL1A)
10 Four-way intersections .57 (-) .67 (-) IL2 (-) .88 (-) .23 (-) BL1 (-)
11 Many alternative routes .49 (.43) .76 (.82) IL2 (IL2A) .92 (.92) .15 (.15) BL1 (BL1A)
12 Sidewalks .50 (.41) .75 (.83) IL3 (IL3A) .98 (.74) .04 (.45) BL3 (BL1A)
13 Well-maintained sidewalks .58 (-) .66 (-) IL3 (-) .60 (-) .64 (-) BL3 (-)
14 Bicycle or pedestrian trails .41 (-) .83 (-) IL3 (-) .38 (-) .86 (-) BL4 (-)
15 Cars dividing sidewalk and traffic .25 (.26) .94 (.93) IL3 (IL3A) .81 (.84) .35 (.29) BL1 (BL1A)
16 Grass/dirt dividing sidewalk and traffic .30 (.31) .90 (.90) IL3 (IL3A) .90 (.73) .19 (.47) BL4 (BL3A)
17 Safe to ride .64 (-) .56 (-) IL3 (-) .84 (-) .29 (-) BL5 (-)
18 Trees .43 (.42) .81 (.82) IL4 (IL4A) .85 (.99) .27 (.02) BL4 (BL3A)
19 Trees give shade .41 (-) .83 (-) IL4 (-) .64 (-) .59 (-) BL4 (-)
20 Many interesting things to look at .72 (.77) .48 (.41) IL4 (IL4A) .55 (.64) .69 (.60) BL5 (BL4A)
21 No litter .51 (-) .74 (-) IL4 (-) .92 (-) .16 (-) BL5 (-)
22 Many attractive natural sights .72 (.71) .49 (.50) IL4 (IL4A) .91 (.86) .18 (.26) BL5 (BL4A)
23 Attractive buildings/homes .71 (.69) .50 (.52) IL4 (IL4A) .63 (.71) .60 (.50) BL5 (BL4A)
24 Heavy traffic along the street .73 (-) .47 (-) IL5 (-) -.71 (-) .50 (-) BL6 (-)
25 Heavy traffic along nearby streets .72 (.66) .48 (.57) IL5 (IL5A) -.64 (-.56) .59 (.69) BL6 (BL5A)
26 Slow traffic speed on the street -.50 (-) .75 (-) IL5 (-) .87 (-) .25 (-) BL6 (-)
27 Slow traffic speed on nearby streets -.48 (-.55) .77 (.69) IL5 (IL5A) .75 (.71) .44 (.50) BL6 (BL5A)
28 Speeding drivers .42 (.42) .82 (.82) IL5 (IL5A) -.45 (-.60) .80 (.64) BL6 (BL5A)
29 Street lights .49 (.60) .76 (.64) IL3 (IL3A) .68 (.71) .54 (.50) BL1 (BL1A)
30 Walkers and bikers easily seen .49 (.61) .76 (.63) IL3 (IL3A) .81 (.87) .34 (.25) BL6 (BL5A)
31 Crosswalks and pedestrian signals .34 (.30) .88 (.90) IL3 (IL3A) .90 (.82) .19 (.32) BL1 (BL1A)
32 Crosswalks help walkers feel safe .49 (-) .76 (-) IL3 (-) .89 (-) .21 (-) BL1 (-)
33 Exhaust fumes .50 (-) .75 (-) IL5 (-) -.84 (-) .30 (-) BL5 (-)
34 Seeing/speaking to other people Single item (NEWS only) .61 (-) .63 (-) BL6 (-)
35 High crime rate .76 (.75) .43 (.44) IL6 (IL6A) -.98 (-.99) .04 (.02) BL5 (BL4A)
36 Unsafe to walk during the day .55 (.52) .70 (.73) IL6 (IL6A) -.92 (-.95) .17 (.10) BL5 (BL4A)
37 Unsafe to walk at night .80 (.81) .35 (.34) IL6 (IL6A) -.97 (-.98) .06 (.03) BL5 (BL4A)
38 Safe for children to walk alone -.39 (-) .85 (-) IL6 (-) .78 (-) .39 (-) BL5 (-)
  1. (-) = not applicable. SL = standardized loadings; SU = standardized uniqueness; LF= latent factor. Latent individual-level factors: IL1 and IL1A = Land use mix – access; IL2 and IL2A = Street connectivity; IL3 = Infrastructure and safety for walking/cycling; IL3A = Infrastructure and safety for walking; IL4 and IL4A = Aesthetics; IL5 and IL5A = Traffic hazards; IL6 and IL6A = Crime. Latent blockgroup-level factors: BL1 and BL1A = Land use mix access and infrastructure for walking; BL2 and BL2A = Physical obstacles to walking; BL3 = Sidewalks; BL4 and BL3A = Green areas; BL5 and BL4A = Aesthetics and safety from crime; BL6 and BL5A = Traffic safety and presence of pedestrians. Autocorrelated error terms were modeled for items 18 and 19 (r = 0.55; t = 14.4; P < 0.001), and 31 and 32 (r = 0.59; t = 15.6; P < 0.001).
\