Skip to main content

Table 2 Longitudinal random-effects regression predicting change in total dietary calories/Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) for Filipino mothers versus offspringa

From: Offspring consume a more obesogenic diet than mothers in response to changing socioeconomic status and urbanization in Cebu, Philippines

Model Mother and Daughter Mother and Son
Household member:   
   Mother Ref b Ref
   Offspring -0.22 (-0.31,-0.13)*** c -0.13 (-0.26,0.004)
Independent variables:   
   Maternal education:   
Less than primary school graduate Ref Ref
Primary school graduate 0.07 (0.01,0.12)* 0.11 (0.05,0.17)***
Some high school 0.12 (0.06,0.18)*** 0.14 (0.08,0.20)***
High school graduate or higher 0.22 (0.15,0.30)*** 0.22 (0.15,0.30)***
   Household income, (per 100 pesos) 0.006 (-0.001,0.013) 0.008 (0.003,0.01)***
   Household assets, (score,1 to 11) 0.01 (-0.004,0.02) 0.01 (-0.001,0.03)
   Urbanicity, (score, 1 to 70) 0.006 (0.004,0.008)*** 0.006 (0.003,0.008)***
   Time:   
1994 Ref Ref
1998 -0.001 (-0.10,0.09) 0.27 (0.13,0.40)***
2002 0.04 (-0.07,0.15) 0.04 (-0.10,0.19)
2005 -0.20 (-0.33,-0.07)** 0.01 (-0.14,0.17)
Offspring – independent variable interactions:   
   Offspring*Primary school graduate -0.04 (-0.11,0.03) -0.06 (-0.14,0.02)
   Offspring*Some high school 0.01 (-0.06,0.08) -0.004 (-0.08,0.07)
   Offspring*High school graduate or higher -0.03 (-0.12,0.06) -0.03 (-0.12,0.07)
   Offspring*Household income -0.004 (-0.01,0.002) -0.002 (-0.008,0.004)
   Offspring* Household assets 0.03 (0.01,0.04)*** 0.01 (-0.001,0.03)
   Offspring*Urbanicity 0.003 (0.001,0.005)* 0.005 (0.001,0.008)**
Independent variable – time interactions:   
   Offspring*1998 0.05 (-0.006,0.10) 0.16 (-0.02,0.34)
   Offspring*2002 0.24 (0.18,0.30)*** 0.49 (0.31,0.68)***
   Offspring*2005 0.39 (0.33,0.46)*** 0.92 (0.73,1.12)***
   Household income*1998 0.008 (-0.01,0.02) ---------------
   Household income*2002 -0.003 (-0.01,0.01) ---------------
   Household income*2005 -0.005 (-0.01,0.004) ---------------
   Household assets*1998 -0.006 (-0.02,0.01) -0.002 (-0.02,0.01)
   Household assets*2002 -0.008 (-0.02,0.01) -0.003 (-0.02,0.01)
   Household assets*2005 0.02 (0.01,0.05)* -0.02 (-0.04,-0.01)**
   Urbanicity*1998 -0.003 (-0.005,-0.001)* -0.005 (-0.01,-0.002)**
   Urbanicity*2002 -0.002 (-0.005,-0.001)* -0.002 (-0.005,0.001)
   Urbanicity*2005 -0.002 (-0.005,0.000) -0.001 (-0.005,0.002)
Triple interactions:   
   Offspring*Urbanicity*1998 --------------- -0.002 (-0.006,0.002)
   Offspring*Urbanicity*2002 --------------- -0.005 (-0.009–0.001)*
   Offspring*Urbanicity*2005 --------------- -0.009 (-0.01,-0.004)***
  1. aAll models are adjusted for maternal age
  2. bNotes: Ref = referent category
  3. c†P < 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.0001