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Table 3 Longitudinal random-effects regression predicting percent of dietary calories from fat for Filipino mothers versus offspringa

From: Offspring consume a more obesogenic diet than mothers in response to changing socioeconomic status and urbanization in Cebu, Philippines

Model Mother and Daughter Mother and Son
Household member:   
   Mother Ref b Ref
   Offspring 3.40 (1.01,5.79)** c 0.75 (-1.10,2.59)
Independent variables:   
   Maternal education:   
Less than primary school graduate Ref Ref
Primary school graduate 1.46 (0.25,2.67)* 2.04 (0.84,3.25)**
Some high school 3.77 (2.53,5.01)*** 3.32 (2.15,4.49)***
High school graduate or higher 6.22 (4.62,7.83)*** 6.95 (4.52,8.47)***
   Household income, (per 100 pesos) 0.29 (0.12,0.46)** 0.17 (0.08,0.26)***
   Household assets, (score,1 to 11) 1.10 (0.72,1.049)*** 0.74 (0.51,0.97)***
   Urbanicity, (score, 1 to 70) 0.08 (0.05,0.12)*** 0.14 (0.09,0.18)***
   Time:   
1994 Ref Ref
1998 0.34 (-1.86,2.54) 4.88 (2.80,6.94)***
2002 0.72 (-1.98,3.41) 2.69 (0.48,4.90)*
2005 1.60 (-1.73,4.92) 0.23 (-2.15,2.61)
Offspring – independent variable interactions:   
   Offspring*Primary school graduate -0.40 (-1.87,1.06) -1.13 (-2.60,0.33)
   Offspring*Some high school -0.86 (-2.35,0.64) -1.33 (-2.75,0.08)
   Offspring*High school graduate or higher -1.23 (-3.18,0.72) -2.63 (-4.51,-0.75)**
   Offspring*Household income -0.19 (-0.34,-0.05)** -0.08 (-0.21,0.04)
   Offspring*Household assets -0.31 (-0.80,0.17) 0.17 (-0.14,0.47)
   Offspring*Urbanicity 0.02 (-0.02,0.06) 0.03 (-0.02,0.07)
Independent variable – time interactions:   
   Offspring*1998 1.76 (-1.30,4.82) 2.50 (1.17,3.84)***
   Offspring*2002 6.40 (2.73,10.08)** 4.90 (3.51,6.30)***
   Offspring*2005 2.92 (-1.56,7.39) 5.37 (3.63,6.57)***
   Household income*1998 0.17 (-0.04,0.39) ---------------
   Household income*2002 0.01 (-0.20,0.22) ---------------
   Household income*2005 -0.17 (-0.38,0.03) ---------------
   Household assets*1998 -0.48 (-0.99,0.03) ---------------
   Household assets*2002 -0.50 (-1.04,0.05) ---------------
   Household assets*2005 -0.41 (-1.03,0.22) ---------------
   Urbanicity*1998 --------------- -0.08 (-0.13,-0.04)**
   Urbanicity*2002 --------------- -0.09 (-0.14,-0.04)**
   Urbanicity*2005 --------------- -0.05 (-0.10,0.01)
Triple interactions:   
   Offspring*Household assets*1998 0.81 (0.17,1.45)* ---------------
   Offspring*Household assets*2002 0.57 (-0.13,1.27) ---------------
   Offspring*Household assets*2005 0.98 (0.16,1.79)* ---------------
  1. aAll models are adjusted for maternal age
  2. bNotes: Ref = referent category
  3. c†P < 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.0001