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Table 4 Longitudinal random-effects regression predicting dietary calories from carbohydrates for Filipino mothers versus offspringa

From: Offspring consume a more obesogenic diet than mothers in response to changing socioeconomic status and urbanization in Cebu, Philippines

Model Mother and Daughter Mother and Son
Household member:   
   Mother Ref b Ref
   Offspring -2.65 (-4.70,0.61)* c -2.24 (-3.57,-0.91)**
Independent variables:   
   Maternal education:   
Less than primary school graduate Ref Ref
Primary school graduate -1.23 (-2.53,0.07) -1.87 (-3.16,-0.59)**
Some high school -3.71 (-5.04,-2.38)*** -3.06 (-4.32,-1.81)***
High school graduate or higher -6.28 (-8.00,-4.56)*** -7.16 (-8.78,-5.53)***
   Household income, (per 100 pesos) -0.29 (-0.46,-0.13)*** -0.22 (-0.32,-0.12)***
   Household assets, (score,1 to 11) -0.96 (-1.23,-0.70)*** -0.93 (-1.18,-0.68)***
   Urbanicity, (score, 1 to 70) -0.09 (-0.12,-0.05)*** -0.10 (-0.15,-0.05)***
   Time:   
1994 Ref Ref
1998 2.36 (-0.90,3.83)** -2.36 (-5.18,-0.81)**
2002 1.17 (-0.47,2.80) -1.87 (-4.20,0.45)
2005 -0.01 (-1.80,1.77) 1.14 (-1.36,3.64)
Offspring – independent variable interactions:   
   Offspring*Primary school graduate 0.25 (-1.32,1.81) 1.06 (-0.53,2.64)
   Offspring*Some high school 1.37 (0.22,2.97) 1.56 (0.03,2.97)*
   Offspring*High school graduate+ 1.62 (-0.47,3.71) 2.77 (0.74,4.71)**
   Offspring*Household income 0.23 (0.08,0.38)** 0.12 (-0.01,0.25)
   Offspring*Household assets -0.01 (-0.35,0.32) -0.03 (-0.36,0.29)
   Offspring*Urbanicity -0.01 (-0.06,0.03) -0.01 (-0.06,0.03)
Independent variable – time interactions:   
   Offspring*1998 -4.98 (-6.46,-3.51)*** -2.38 (-3.78,-0.97)**
   Offspring*2002 -11.07 (-12.66,-9.48)*** -6.68 (-8.15,-5.22)***
   Offspring*2005 -10.95 (-12.66,-9.25)*** -8.10 (-9.64,-6.56)***
   Household income*1998 -0.23 (-0.42,-0.04)* ---------------
   Household income*2002 -0.09 (-0.28,0.10) ---------------
   Household income*2005 0.07 (-0.12,0.26) ---------------
   Urbanicity*1998 --------------- 0.05 (-0.002,0.10)
   Urbanicity*2002 --------------- 0.04 (-0.01,0.09)
   Urbanicity*2005 --------------- -0.01 (-0.07,0.04)
  1. aAll models are adjusted for maternal age
  2. bRef = referent category
  3. c†P < 0.10, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.0001