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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios for meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

From: Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

  Meeting physical activity recommendations
  Men Women
  Adjusted
OR
(95% CI)   Adjusted
OR
(95% CI)  
Age       
   20–29 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   30–39 0.99 (0.60–1.64)   0.69 (0.40–1.21)  
   40–49 0.93 (0.54–1.60)   0.97 (0.56–1.67)  
   ≥50 0.92 (0.55–1.54)   1.00 (0.60–1.67)  
Marital status       
   Married 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Unmarried 0.95 (0.64–1.39)   0.83 (0.52–1.32)  
Educational status       
   ≤ high school graduate 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   2 years of college 1.28 (0.79–2.07)   1.54 (1.04–2.29) *
   ≥ college graduate 0.67 (0.47–0.95)   1.20 (0.79–1.84)  
Employment status       
   Employed 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Not employed 1.11 (0.73–1.68)   0.95 (0.67–1.33)  
Household income level       
   < 3,000,000 yen 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   3,000,000–yen 0.79 (0.50–1.27)   0.86 (0.51–1.44)  
   5,000,000–yen 0.82 (0.49–1.37)   1.13 (0.66–1.96)  
   7,000,000–yen 0.92 (0.54–1.57)   0.67 (0.38–1.17)  
   10,000,000–yen 0.77 (0.43–1.39)   1.16 (0.65–2.08)  
Self-efficacy       
   Low 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   High 2.13 (1.55–2.94) *** 2.72 (1.82–4.08) ***
Pros       
   Low 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   High 1.27 (0.92–1.75)   1.02 (0.72–1.46)  
Cons       
   Low 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   High 0.83 (0.60–1.14)   0.47 (0.33–0.67) ***
Social support       
   Low 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   High 1.44 (1.06–1.97) * 1.13 (0.80–1.59)  
Health professional advice       
   No 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
   Yes 0.89 (0.64–1.24)   0.66 (0.42–1.05)  
Home fitness equipment       
   No 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 1.55 (1.14–2.10) * 1.41 (1.01–1.99) *
Access to facilities       
   No 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 1.11 (0.79–1.56)   1.20 (0.82–1.77)  
Neighborhood safety       
   No 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 1.09 (0.76–1.56)   0.86 (0.58–1.27)  
Enjoyable scenery       
   No 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 1.03 (0.74–1.45)   1.60 (1.09–2.36) *
Frequently observing others exercising       
   No 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Yes 1.12 (0.79–1.57)   1.09 (0.75–1.58)  
Residential area       
   Urban 1.00 (ref)   1.00 (ref)  
   Suburban 1.03 (0.76–1.39)   1.04 (0.74–1.46)  
   Rural 0.66 (0.36–1.21)   0.50 (0.25–0.97) *
  1. OR = odd ratios; CI = confidence interval; ref = referent group
  2. Study conducted by Internet research service organization, Tokyo, Japan, in February 2008.
  3. *** p < .000, ** p < .01, *p < .05