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Table 1 Claims related to health and wellbeing made for and against the new motorway

From: Shoe leather epidemiology: active travel and transport infrastructure in the urban landscape

Domain* Claims made in favour of intervention Claims made against intervention
Economic Will create up to 20,000 jobs by enabling regeneration and encouraging inward investment Will redistribute economic activity from other parts of Scotland rather than producing a net increase
  Will increase business competitiveness by improving just-in-time delivery times Will displace 100 local businesses
  Will create 350 jobs during construction  
Traffic Will reduce journey times, relieve congestion on existing motorways and main roads, and reduce traffic on local roads Will increase traffic in general and on feeder roads in particular
Injuries Will reduce accidents  
Active travel Quieter local roads will lead to improved conditions for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport Will encourage use of motor vehicles Local walking and cycling journeys will be made more difficult by having to cross new motorway junctions
Environmental Noise and air pollution will be reduced on balance throughout the area Moderate-to-major increases in noise are predicted at some sites
  Will produce minimal severance effects because much of the route follows an existing main line railway Nitrogen dioxide concentrations will be increased within 100 metres of the route
  Chromium-contaminated land will be handled safely during construction Very severe combined impacts predicted in four residential areas close to the route
   Chromium will be dispersed from contaminated land into the air or river during construction
   Contradicts stated overall sustainability objectives of transport policy
Social justice Will improve quality of life in local communities Unacceptable opportunity cost, e.g. the money could be used to fund improved public transport
  Will result in better employment opportunities for local people Will mostly benefit motorists from more distant and more affluent areas, causing adverse effects on local communities which have low levels of car ownership
  1. * Claims grouped into domains post hoc by authors.
  2. † Summarised and adapted from the then government's case for the project [24] and the report of the public local inquiry. [25]