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Table 9 Association between representative built, social, and economic environment measure quartiles and weekly bouts of MVPA, Females (n = 8,626)1

From: Built and socioeconomic environments: patterning and associations with physical activity in U.S. adolescents

  exp(coefficient) (95% CI)
Quartile [median (min, max)] Model 2 Model 4 Model 5
Simpson's Diversity Index2    
1 [0.71 (0.66, 0.83)] 1 1 1
2 [0.62 (0.58, 0.66)] 1.04 (0.98, 1.10) 1.03 (0.97, 1.10) 1.03 (0.97, 1.10)
3 [0.53 (0.46, 0.58)] 1.04 (0.99, 1.10) 1.04 (0.99, 1.10) 1.03 (0.98, 1.09)
4 [0.33 (0.01, 0.46)] 1.00 (0.95, 1.06) 1.01 (0.95, 1.06) 1.00 (0.94, 1.05)
Count of pay facilities    
1 [0 (0, 1)] 1 1 1
2 [3 (2, 4)] 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 0.96 (0.92, 1.01) 0.93 (0.88, 0.99)*
3 [7 (5, 9)] 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 0.96 (0.92, 1.01) 0.95 (0.90, 0.99)*
4 [14 (10, 174)] 0.92 (0.86, 0.98)* 0.92 (0.87, 0.98)* 0.96 (0.91, 1.01)
Count of public facilities3    
1 [0 (0, 0)] 1 1 1
2 [1 (1, 1)] 1.03 (0.97, 1.09) 1.04 (0.99, 1.09) 1.04 (0.95, 1.13)
3 [3 (2, 20)] 1.05 (0.99, 1.11) 1.07 (1.02, 1.13)* 1.04 (1.00, 1.09)*
Street Connectivity (alpha)    
1 [0.17 (-8.00, 0.21)] 1 1 1
2 [0.26 (0.21, 0.30)] 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) 0.99 (0.93, 1.06)
3 [0.33 (0.30, 0.38)] 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) 1.02 (0.95, 1.09)
4 [0.45 (0.38, 8.00)] 0.91 (0.85, 0.98)* 0.94 (0.87, 1.01) 0.94 (0.87, 1.01)
Median household income4    
1 [1.7 (0.5, 2.1)]   1 1
2 [2.5 (2.1, 3.0)]   1.03 (0.98, 1.08) 1.03 (0.98, 1.08)
3 [3.4 (3.0, 3.8)]   1.05 (0.99, 1.12) 1.05 (0.99, 1.12)
4 [4.5 (3.8, 12.5)]   1.10 (1.02, 1.18)* 1.11 (1.03, 1.19)*
Crime rate/100,000 population    
1 [2,629 (108, 3,647)]   1 1
2 [4,899 (3,696, 5,612)]   0.98 (0.92, 1.04) 0.98 (0.93, 1.04)
3 [6,177 (5,623, 6,975)]   0.93 (0.86, 1.00)* 0.94 (0.87, 1.01)
4 [8,317 (7,084, 13,723)]   0.92 (0.86, 0.98)* 0.93 (0.87, 1.00)*
  1. 1National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave I (1995-96). Based on sex-stratified negative binomial regression models; value represents proportion increase in MVPA bouts. Referent category is lowest quantile. Environmental measures representing each factor were generally selected based on the highest loadings, with the following exceptions: non-overlapping pay facility types (instruction, member, and public fee) were summed, public (rather than youth) facilities were selected for longitudinal relevance. For brevity, only Models 2, 4, and 5 are presented; their names are retained to be consistent with Table 7.
  2. 2Negatively associated with homogenous land cover factor, so reverse coded to for comparability
  3. 3tertiles
  4. 4in 10,000's
  5. Model 2: Built environment characteristics in the same model, adjusted for individual-level sociodemographic variables
  6. Model 4: Built environment characteristics in the same model, adjusted for individual-level sociodemographics, median household income, and crime rate
  7. Model 5: Built environment characteristics (facilities counts scaled by population) in the same model, adjusted for individual-level sociodemographics, median household income, and crime rate
  8. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05)