Skip to main content

Table 4 Measurement model of the full NEWS-CS and NEWS-CS including items common to the original NEWS-A

From: Reliable and valid NEWS for Chinese seniors: measuring perceived neighborhood attributes related to walking

  NEWS-CS NEWS-A
Item SL (SU) Factor SL (SU) Factor
Shops are within walking distance 0.66 (0.56) Access to services 0.67 (0.55) Access to services
Shopping accessible via public transport 0.69 (0.53) " NA (NA) NA
Many places within walking distance 0.79 (0.37) " 0.83 (0.31) Access to services
Easy to walk to transit stop 0.60 (0.64) " 0.54 (0.71) "
Hilly streets 0.72 (0.48) Physical barriers to walking 0.73 (0.47) Physical barriers to walking
Major barriers (e.g., roadwork, freeways) 0.59 (0.65) " 0.63 (0.60) "
Many dead ends 0.38 (0.85) " 0.38 (0.85) "
Short distance between intersections 0.99 (0.02) Street connectivity 0.99 (0.02) Street connectivity
Many alternative routes 0.79 (0.38) " 0.79 (0.38) "
Sidewalks 0.43 (0.81) Infrastructure for walking 0.39 (0.85) Infrastructure for walking
Streets lit at night 0.41 (0.83) " 0.41 (0.83) "
Crosswalks and pedestrian signals to help walkers cross busy streets 0.36 (0.87) " 0.32 (0.90) "
Many covered sidewalks 0.41 (0.83) Indoor places for walking NA (NA) NA
Indoor, air-conditioned places for walking 0.55 (0.70) " NA (NA) NA
Trees 0.82 (0.33) Aesthetics 0.79 (0.38) Aesthetics
Many interesting things to look at 0.41 (0.83) " 0.42 (0.83) "
Many attractive natural sights 0.54 (0.71) " 0.56 (0.69) "
Attractive buildings/homes 0.46 (0.79) " 0.48 (0.77) "
Walkers can be seen 0.57 (0.68) Presence of people 0.32 (0.90) Infrastructure for walking
Difficult to ask for help because not many people around -0.83 (0.32) " NA (NA) NA
Crowded streets 0.56 (0.68) Crowdedness NA (NA) NA
'Hawkers' and shops on streets blocking the way 0.44 (0.81) " NA (NA) NA
Motor vehicles parked on sidewalks 0.50 (0.75) Traffic and road hazards NA (NA) NA
Streets and sidewalks slippery 0.38 (0.86) " NA (NA) NA
Air pollution (e.g., exhaust fumes) 0.61 (0.63) " NA (NA) NA
Heavy traffic along nearby streets 0.60 (0.64) " 0.30 (0.91) Traffic load
Parked vehicles block vision 0.51 (0.74) " NA (NA) NA
Afraid to cross road because too many passing cars 0.58 (0.66) " NA (NA) NA
Slow traffic speed on streets -0.49 (0.77) Traffic speed -0.58 (0.66) Traffic load
Speeding drivers 0.99 (0.02) " 0.80 (0.36) "
Objects dropping from high-rise buildings 0.53 (0.72) Social disorder/littering NA (NA) NA
Animal droppings 0.51 (0.74) " NA (NA) NA
Many homeless people, drug addicts, prostitutes 0.45 (0.80) " NA (NA) NA
High crime rate 0.60 (0.64) Crime 0.60 (0.64) Crime
Unsafe to walk during the day 0.60 (0.64) " 0.60 (0.64) "
Unsafe to walk at night 0.83 (0.32) " 0.84 (0.71) "
Fence separating sidewalk and traffic - (1.00) Single item - (1.00) Single item
Bridge/overpass connecting to services - (1.00) " NA (NA) NA
Easy access of residential entrance - (1.00) " NA (NA) NA
Sitting facilities - (1.00) " NA (NA) NA
  1. NA = not applicable; SL = standardized factor loadings; SU = standardized uniquenesses