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Table 2 Associations between physical activity measures and social norms, with and without control for social support

From: Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

Predictors of leisure-time moderate/vigorous physical activity Step 1a Step 2b
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Social norms for exercising     
   Neutral/disagree/strongly disagree 1   1  
   Agree 1.30** 1.11, 1.51 1.22* 1.04, 1.43
   Strongly agree 1.68*** 1.38, 2.06 1.49*** 1.20, 1.83
Social norms for exercise/sport     
   Neutral/disagree/strongly disagree 1   1  
   Agree/strongly agree 1.94*** 1.69, 2.22 1.69*** 1.47, 1.94
Social norms for doing little physical activity     
   Neutral/disagree/strongly disagree 1   1  
   Agree/strongly agree 0.90^ 0.79, 1.01 0.93 0.83, 1.06
Predictors of total volitional walking Step 1 a Step 2 b
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Social norms for walking     
   Neutral/disagree/strongly disagree 1   1  
   Agree 1.41*** 1.18, 1.69 1.36** 1.14, 1.63
   Strongly agree 1.78*** 1.44, 2.20 1.68*** 1.35, 2.10
Social norms for walking/cycling     
   Neutral/disagree/strongly disagree 1   1  
   Agree/strongly agree 1.59 (***) 1.41, 1.80 1.50*** 1.33, 1.69
Predictors of transport cycling Step 1 a Step 2 b
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Social norms for walking/cycling     
   Neutral/disagree/strongly disagree 1   1  
   Agree/strongly agree 1.28^ 0.99, 1.65 1.17 0.90, 1.52
  1. * p < .05, ** p < .005, *** p < .0005
  2. ^ p < .10 (trend level association)
  3. a outcome regressed on social norm variables individually, controlling for respondent education, marital status, number of children, and whether they were trying to maintain/lose/gain weight
  4. b outcome regressed on social norm variables individually, controlling for family support for physical activity and friend/colleague support for physical activity, plus all previous covariates (respondent education, marital status, number of children, and whether they were trying to maintain/lose/gain weight)