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Table 5 Generalized estimating equation coefficients and odds (predictability) of TV and VG for boys, girls, and those classified as overfat (n = 205 boys, 229 girls, 34 overfat)

From: Tracking of TV and video gaming during childhood: Iowa Bone Development Study

  Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
  Stability Coefficient Stability Coefficient Odds Ratio Odds Ratio
TV Viewing     
   Boys 0.35 (0.26, 0.44) 0.35 (0.26, 0.44)a 3.0 (1.9, 4.8) 3.2 (2.0, 5.2)a
   Girls 0.34 (0.26, 0.43) 0.32 (0.23, 0.40)a 3.2 (2.1, 4.9) 2.9 (1.9, 4.6)a
   Overfatb 0.41 (0.23, 0.59) 0.45 (0.27, 0.64)c 3.7 (1.5, 9.0) 6.2 (2.2, 17.2)c
Video Gaming     
   Boys 0.15 (0.05, 0.25) 0.14 (0.05, 0.24)a 1.9 (1.1, 3.2) 1.8 (1.1, 3.1)a
   Girls 0.24 (0.09, 0.39) 0.24 (0.10, 0.38)a 3.4 (2.1, 5.8) 3.5 (2.1, 5.8)a
   Overfatb 0.37 (0.16, 0.57) 0.29 (0.08, 0.50)c 2.7 (0.7, 10.6) 1.9 (0.6, 6.1)c
  1. Values are presented as point estimate (95% confidence interval).
  2. a Adjusted for maturity, overfat (age 5 and concurrent), and MVPA (age 5 and concurrent).
  3. b Cut-points for being overfat: Boys ≥ 25% BF, Girls ≥ 32% BF.
  4. c Adjusted for maturity, sex, and MVPA (age 5 and concurrent).
  5. Odds of being in upper category at subsequent ages for for children in upper category at age 5, relative to children in lower categories at age 5. The upper category for both boys' and girls' TV was > 3 hours · day-1.
  6. The upper categories for boys' VG were > 1 hour · day-1 at age 5, > 2 hours · day-1 at ages 8 and 11, and > 3 hours · day-1 at age 13. The upper category for girls' video was > 1 hour · day-1 except age 13, where the upper category was > 2 hours · day-1.