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Table 3 Individual and combined effects of diet and/or exercise intervention on health-related quality of life scores (measured by SF-36)

From: Dietary weight loss and exercise interventions effects on quality of life in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline 12 months Changes   
  Unadjusted mean (SD) Unadjusted mean (SD) Unadjusted mean Adjusted mean p-value * p-value
Physical functioning       < 0.001
   Control 86.8 (11.7) 84.5 (15.5) -2.3 -2.6 Ref  
   Diet 86.2 (11.0) 88.1 (15.9) 1.9 1.2 0.03  
   Exercise 87.8 (11.1) 87.6 (15.0) -0.2 -0.1 0.17  
   Diet + Exercise 86.7 (12.1) 92.4 (11.3) 5.7 5.5 < 0.001 b  
Role-physical       < 0.001
   Control 81.6 (30.1) 78.7 (32.0) -2.9 -3.7 Ref  
   Diet 83.5 (26.8) 82.8 (30.4) -0.7 -0.3 0.36  
   Exercise 82.8 (29.3) 78.7 (32.7) -4.1 -4.1 0.93  
   Diet + Exercise 83.5 (25.9) 92.5 (18.9) 9.0 9.6 < 0.001 b  
Bodily pain       0.12
   Control 75.8 (17.2) 72.6 (18.2) -3.2 -4.6 Ref  
   Diet 76.9 (15.1) 76.8 (21.2) -0.1 -1.1 0.15  
   Exercise 77.8 (16.5) 74.5 (20.7) -3.3 -3.8 0.74  
   Diet + Exercise 78.8 (16.8) 79.1 (17.5) 0.3 0.4 0.04  
General health       0.57
   Control 57.1 (8.0) 56.4 (7.1) -0.7 -0.5 Ref  
   Diet 55.9 (7.7) 56.9 (7.3) 1.0 0.5 0.24  
   Exercise 56.9 (6.7) 56.4 (7.3) -0.5 -0.5 0.97  
   Diet + Exercise 57.6 (6.4) 56.9 (7.3) -0.7 -0.3 0.81  
Vitality       < 0.001
   Control 57.4 (16.0) 59.2 (17.9) 1.8 0.4 Ref  
   Diet 56.6 (17.7) 65.7 (17.2) 9.1 7.2 < 0.001  
   Exercise 60.3 (16.3) 62.9 (17.6) 2.6 2.8 0.25  
   Diet + Exercise 58.7 (18.6) 70.2 (17.2) 11.5 11.2 < 0.001 a  
Social functioning       0.43
   Control 87.8 (18.0) 86.9 (17.5) -0.9 -2.5 Ref  
   Diet 88.1 (17.1) 87.2 (18.6) -0.9 -3.1 0.83  
   Exercise 91.4 (13.1) 88.5 (18.9) -2.9 -4.0 0.58  
   Diet + Exercise 90.8 (13.4) 91.6 (17.0) 0.8 -0.2 0.37  
Role-emotional       0.09
   Control 84.1 (26.9) 83.3 (31.8) -0.8 -3.3 Ref  
   Diet 82.2 (28.5) 85.6 (27.4) 3.4 -0.8 0.51  
   Exercise 87.5 (25.5) 81.4 (32.5) -6.1 -6.2 0.45  
   Diet + Exercise 88.6 (20.1) 90.3 (22.8) 1.7 2.5 0.13  
Mental health       0.06
   Control 77.1 (13.5) 77.3 (14.5) 0.2 -0.8 Ref  
   Diet 76.8 (13.1) 80.2 (13.0) 3.4 2.2 0.05  
   Exercise 81.1 (10.0) 81.2 (11.7) 0.1 0.9 0.29  
   Diet + Exercise 79.1 (12.3) 82.3 (12.6) 3.2 3.1 0.01  
  1. Adjusted mean change indicates adjustment for the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and covariates
  2. *p-value comparing 12-month changes in HRQOL vs. control adjusting for the baseline scores and covariates (Physical functioning: baseline BMI, medication use, Role-physical: age, baseline BMI, Bodily pain: medication use, Vitality: age, medication use, Social functioning: employment status, Role-emotional: medication use, Mental health: medication use)
  3. p-value for group effects on 12-month changes in HRQOL adjusting for baseline scores and covariates (Physical functioning: baseline BMI, medication use, Role-physical: age, baseline BMI, Bodily pain: medication use, Vitality: age, medication use, Social functioning: employment status, Role-emotional: medication use, Mental health: medication use)
  4. ap-value< 0.05 vs. diet group, bp-value< 0.01 vs. diet group