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Table 4 Individual and combined effects of diet and/or exercise intervention on psychosocial factors (depression and anxiety measured by BSI-18, perceived stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, social support measured by MOS Social Support Survey)

From: Dietary weight loss and exercise interventions effects on quality of life in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

  Baseline 12 months Changes   
  Unadjusted mean (SD) Unadjusted mean (SD) Unadjusted mean Adjusted mean p-value * p-value
Depression       0.12
   Control 48.0 (9.0) 48.4 (9.6) 0.4 0.7 Ref  
   Diet 49.4 (9.8) 47.8 (8.7) -1.6 -0.5 0.31  
   Exercise 48.3 (9.4) 48.1 (9.8) -0.2 0.2 0.68  
   Diet + Exercise 48.3 (8.7) 46.2 (8.2) -2.1 -1.7 0.03  
Anxiety       0.41
   Control 45.3 (7.0) 45.3 (8.7) 0.0 0.6 Ref  
   Diet 44.9 (6.8) 43.8 (7.3) -1.1 -0.6 0.17  
   Exercise 43.5 (6.1) 43.0 (6.9) -0.5 -0.7 0.14  
   Diet + Exercise 44.2 (6.8) 43.5 (6.4) -0.7 -0.6 0.15  
Perceived stress       0.04
   Control 3.71 (2.64) 3.89 (2.75) 0.18 0.32 Ref  
   Diet 3.47 (2.66) 3.51 (2.65) 0.04 0.08 0.44  
   Exercise 3.43 (2.75) 3.35 (2.84) -0.08 -0.06 0.23  
   Diet + Exercise 3.04 (2.35) 2.66 (2.27) -0.38 -0.55 0.006  
Social support       0.11
   Control 81.0 (20.1) 78.5 (20.8) -2.5 -2.8 Ref  
   Diet 80.0 (19.3) 79.4 (20.5) -0.6 -1.1 0.38  
   Exercise 81.4 (15.9) 78.6 (20.8) -2.8 -2.9 0.97  
   Diet + Exercise 81.7 (19.4) 82.9 (18.6) 1.2 1.0 0.05  
  1. Adjusted means are changes in psychological factors adjusted for baseline scores and covariates (e.g., age, baseline BMI, marital status, anxiolytics and antidepressants use)
  2. *p-value comparing 12-month changes in psychosocial factors vs. control adjusting for the baseline scores and covariates (Depression: medication use, Anxiety: medication use, Stress: age, Social support: marital status)
  3. p-value for group effects on 12-month changes in psychosocial factors adjusting for baseline scores and covariates (Depression: medication use, Anxiety: medication use, Stress: age, Social support: marital status)