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Table 2 Bivariate associations of cycling to/from school ≥ 1 trip/week with individual, social and environmental variables

From: On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

   Boys   Girls
   Cycles ≥ 1 trip/week   Cycles ≥ 1 trip/week
Variables Item
Reliability Φ
% No (n = 394) % Yes (n = 179) % No
(n = 533)
% Yes
(n = 91)
Individual factors      
Family factors      
Maternal education§ 0.96 (97.6%)     
   - Less than Secondary   25.0 30.0 30.3 25.0 #
   - Secondary/trade/diploma   56.3 52.4 52.2 65.5
   - Bachelor degree or higher   18.7 17.6 17.5 9.5
Maternal employment§ 0.92 (96.4%)     
   - None   21.6 29.6 # 29.2 20.3
   - Part-time   50.2 41.4 47.3 56.5
   - Full-time   28.2 29.0 23.5 23.2
Adult home after school on most days§ 0.32 (91.6%) 80.1 71.9* 83.6 72.6*
Scheduling commitments before/after school§ 0.56 (79.3%) 40.6 21.6*** 37.6 28.7
Child factors & perceptions      
Overweight or obese - 20.2 27.8 # 23.8 23.0
Cycling is child's preferred school transport mode¥ 0.61 (80.5%) 47.8 85.1*** 30.7 71.4***
Cycling to school is cool¥a 0.62ж 50.8 73.7*** 47.9 64.8**
Cycling to school is more convenient¥a 0.67ж 45.2 74.9*** 36.8 68.1***
Confident in ability to cycle to school without adult¥a 0.67ж 81.7 96.6*** 73.1 87.9**
Feels safer being driven to school than cycling¥a 0.60ж 29.2 14.0*** 30.3 19.8*
Would feel safe whilst cycling to school¥a 0.68ж 50.0 67.0*** 37.0 50.5*
Social factors      
Parent perceptions b      
Very/extremely fearful child may be injured if they cycled to school without adult§c 0.62ж 22.7 11.2** 26.9 18.6
Very/extremely fearful of stranger danger§c 0.91ж 87.6 79.9* 90.3 75.6***
Often sees/hears news items about traffic dangers §c 0.40ж 49.7 42.1 # 52.0 39.5*
Child has a lot to carry§ 0.57 (75.9%) 18.6 8.0** 19.9 13.8
Driving child to school is more convenient§ 0.44 (65.4%) 42.2 23.9*** 45.6 22.7***
It is irresponsible to let children cycle to school with other children, without adult§a 0.71ж 9.3 5.1 # 15.3 6.9*
Disapproval from others§ 0.53ж 3.8 0.7 # 4.8 1.5
Perceives child's preference is to cycle§ 0.60 (80.9%) 35.8 75.8*** 20.4 70.0***
Confident in child's ability to cycle without adult§a 0.67ж 73.2 97.8*** 69.3 91.1***
The school encourages students to cycle to school§ 0.71 (80.5%) 90.2 95.2 # 90.9 92.9
Child perceptions      
Peer support¥a 0.80ж 45.4 63.1*** 27.4 41.8**
My school would like students to cycle to school¥a 0.45ж 53.8 62.0 # 55.2 54.9
I have many friends in my neighborhood¥ 0.76 (87.9%) 69.6 77.7* 66.2 75.8 #
Physical environmental factors d      
Parent perceptions      
Neighborhood is safe enough for children to cycle to school with friends§a 0.62ж 60.2 80.4*** 63.0 81.3**
There are steep hills§ 0.69 (86.8%) 10.6 8.0 12.7 3.4*
My child would have to cross a busy road§ 0.68 (83.1%) 46.9 27.8*** 43.3 21.8***
There are no safe crossings for my child to use§ 0.69 (81.9%) 30.2 21.0* 30.9 16.1**
There is a lot of traffic near the school§ 0.65ж 53.6 36.9*** 52.3 35.6**
Drivers near school often exceed the speed limit§a 0.64ж 65.6 64.8 63.5 53.9 #
Child perceptions      
There are safe places to leave bikes at my school¥a 0.74ж 74.9 82.1 # 79.7 86.8
I would have to cross a busy road¥a 0.45ж 48.2 50.8 44.5 59.3**
I feel safe crossing the road near my school¥a 0.56ж 74.1 82.7* 72.7 72.5
Objective Environmental factors      
School walkability index -     
   High   45.4 45.8** 47.5 51.6
   Low   54.6 54.2 52.5 48.4
Road traffic volume -     
   High   54.6 54.2** 52.5 48.4
   Low   45.4 45.8 47.5 51.6
Pedshed -     
   High connectivity   50.5 51.4* 54.4 63.7 #
   Low connectivity   49.5 48.6 45.6 36.3
Distance (km)      
   Mean [SE]   2.0[0.2] 1.2[0.1]*** 1.6[0.1] 1.3[0.2]*   
  1. SE = standard error, km = kilometer #p ≤ 0.10 *p ≤ 0.05 **p ≤ 0.01 ***p ≤ 0.001, Kappa (% agreement), ¥Item based on child self-report, §Item based on parent self-report, жICC, ΦReliability based on how items were originally measured not on how recoded for analysis.
  2. aMeasured on a 5-point Likert scale coded 1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree then recoded into two categories: disagree (disagree, strongly disagree or neither) or agree (agree, strongly agree)
  3. bSocial factors with no significant bivariate association with cycling to school included the following three items: child's fear of stranger danger; parent perception that other parents in their child's grade allow their child to cycle to school without an adult; whether the parent often sees/hears news items promoting cycling or walking
  4. cMeasured on a 5-point Likert scale coded 1 = not at all fearful and 5 = extremely fearful then recoded into two categories: not fearful (not at all fearful, not very fearful, somewhat fearful) or fearful (very fearful, extremely fearful).
  5. dPerceived environmental factors with no significant bivariate association with cycling to school included the following five items: child perceived neighborhood friendliness, heavy traffic around the school, heavy traffic around the neighborhood; parent perceived lack of footpaths and neighborhood friendliness