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Table 2 Multiple regression models for the odds of spending any time walking to work

From: Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

  Model A
OR (95% CI) p
Model B1
OR (95% CI) p
Model B2
OR (95% CI) p
Individual and household characteristics    
   Gender (reference: male)    
   Female 1.85 (1.36-2.51) 0.001 1.81 (1.33-2.47) 0.001 1.82 (1.32-2.51) 0.001
   Driving licence (reference: no)    
   Yes 0.38 (0.25-0.60) 0.001 0.41 (0.26- 0.65) 0.001 0.47 (0.29-0.76) 0.001
   Car access × Distance (reference: access to a car, lives ≥ 3 km from work)    
   Owns a car, lives < 3 km from work 1.99 (1.25-3.19) 0.003 2.00 (1.22-3.29) 0.006 1.54 (0.93-2.56) 0.113
   No car, lives ≥ 3 km from work 1.07 (0.67-1.70) 0.757 0.98 (0.60-1.59) 0.942 0.86 (0.52-1.38) 0.740
   No car, lives < 3 km from work 3.39 (1.86-6.17) 0.001 3.21 (1.71-6.02) 0.001 2.31 (1.24-4.29) 0.001
Psychological measures of car use    
   Intention score (reference: low intention)    
   Mid intention score - n.i -
   High intention score    
   Attitude score (reference: low attitude)    
   Mid attitude score _ 1.07 (0.72-1.58) 0.712 _
   High attitude score   1.46 (0.98-2.16) 0.050  
   PBC score (reference: low PBC)    
   Mid PBC score - 0.82 (0.57-1.20) 0.322 -
   High PBC score   0.53 (0.34-0.83) 0.006  
   Social norm score (reference: low social norm)    
   Mid social norm score - n.i -
   High social norm score    
   Habit score (reference: low habits)    
   High habit score - n.i -
Perceptions of the route environment a    
   It is pleasant to walk - - 4.18 (3.02-5.78) 0.001
   There is convenient public transport - - 1.46 (1.10-1.96) 0.010
   There is little traffic - - 0.38 (0.21-0.68) 0.001
   There are no convenient routes for walking - - n.i
   It is safe to cross the road - - n.i
Urban-rural Status (reference: urban)    
   Rural - - n.i
  1. CI confidence intervals; p p-value; PBC Perceived behavioural control; - not entered into the model, n.i not included; a the reference category is strongly disagree, disagree or neither disagree nor agree.