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Table 1 Summary of associations between built environmental attributes and physical activity among all studies (cross-sectional and quasi-experiments)

From: In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults

  N total (studies) Recreation
walking
Transportation walking General walking General
cycling
Combined walk/cycle Moderate to vigorous PA*
Neighborhood characteristics        
Street/pedestrian connectivity 5 o[48] +[48] o[57]/+[58]   +[47] -[33]
Land use mix 6 o[45] +[45] +[44, 45] +[45] +[51, 60] o[59]/+[54]
Recreation land use proximity 7 o[45] o[45] o[44] +[45] o[60]/-[51] o[59]/+[34, 54]/-[34]
Non-recreational land use proximity 10 o[45, 48] +[45]/-[45, 46, 48] o[44]/-[58] o[45] o[47, 51, 60] o[54, 59]
Transit proximity/access 5    o[39]/+[58]   +[47] o[39, 42]/+[37]
Population/residential density 6 +[35]/-[35] +[35] +[57]   o[47] o[33, 34, 59]
Employment/job density 5    o[57]/+[58]   o[47] o[59]/-[33]
Aesthetics/variety/diversity 2 o[48] o[48]     -[34]
Trails/pathways/cycle ways/sidewalk 5    o[31]/+[43]
/-[40, 41]
o[31, 41, 47]/
+[28, 43]/-[40]
  o[40]/+[43]
/-[41]
Parks/public open space install or improvements 2    +[31] o[31]   o[38]
Pedestrian/cyclist amenities (street furniture, lighting, shading) 3 o[48] o[48] +[30]    o[59]
Traffic-related 2 o[48] +[48] o[31] o[31]   
Aggregated neighborhood characteristics        
Walkability/pedestrian index 4 o[29, 55]/+[50] +[29, 50, 55] +[57]   o[52] +[55]
Neighborhood type (traditional, New urbanist) 5 +[53] +[53] +[32, 56]   +[49, 51]  
Sprawl 1    o[36]    o[36]
  1. +: studies reporting statistically significant positive association between the environmental characteristic and physical activity.
  2. -: studies reporting statistically significant negative association between the environmental characteristic and physical activity.
  3. o: studies reporting no statistically significant association between the environmental characteristic and physical activity.
  4. Cross-sectional results that adjust for residential selection included only. Quasi-experimental studies: [28, 30, 31, 3343].
  5. * Also included pedometer and accelerometer-determined physical activity and use of specific locations (i.e., parks or trails).