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Table 2 Summary of temporal associations between built environmental attributes and any physical activity outcome by type of quasi-experimental design

From: In search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults

  Change in physical activity behavior
  Increase No change Decrease
Neighborhood built characteristics    
Street/pedestrian connectivity   
Land use mix  
Recreation land use proximity
Non-recreational land use proximity
Transit proximity/access  
Population/residential density
Employment/job density   
Aesthetics/variety/diversity   
Trails/pathways/cycle ways/sidewalk  
Parks/public open space
Pedestrian/cyclist amenities   
Traffic-related    
Sprawl    
  1. Association found using a same sample pre-post design (residential relocation)
  2. Association found using a same sample pre-post design (environmental modification)
  3. Association found using a different sample pre-post design (environmental modification)
  4. Association found using a same sample pre-post quasi-longitudinal design