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Table 1 Description of behaviour change techniques and strategies implemented in the Healthy Homework Pilot Study

From: Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

Behaviour Change Technique Theoretical Basis Key behavioural determinant Intervention strategy
Provide information about behaviour-health link IMB Awareness (personal) Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme.
Provide information on consequences TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB Awareness (personal) The beneficial consequences of specific physical activity and healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the programme.
Prompt intention formation TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB Attitudes (personal) At the completion of the programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the programme.
Prompt barrier identification SCogT Knowledge (personal) Several topics required the children to identify common barriers to healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives.
Set graded tasks SCogT Knowledge (personal) Children were required to complete at least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to complete all of the remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge.
Provide instruction SCogT Availability of information (environmental) Detailed instruction for each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the homework booklets.
Prompt specific goal setting CT Self-efficacy (personal) Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and with whom the task could be completed.
Prompt review of behavioural goals CT Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the teacher was required to review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks.
Provide feedback on performance CT Awareness (personal) At the completion of the programme, children and their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the evaluation.
Provide contingent rewards OC Self-efficacy (personal) Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and one nutrition task). A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on a given week.
Prompt practice OC Skills (personal) The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour.
Provide opportunities for social comparison SCompT Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and compare their behaviour against others. Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks.
Plan social support or social change Social support theories Family support (social) A large number of homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in homework tasks.
  1. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of reasoned action; TPB = theory of planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning.