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Table 1 Descriptive and scale information of child characteristics and parenting practices (N = 2021)

From: Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

Category   Concept Item(s) Answering scalea Reliabilityb Mean (SD)
Child characteristics Diet Eating style Hungry Compared to peers, my child is always hungry. A - 2.65 (0.85)
    Picky (CFQ) - My child's diet conists of only a few foods.
- My child is unwilling to eat many of the foods I serve.
- My child is picky or fussy about what (s)he eats.
A 0.74 2.27 (1.05)
  Activity Activity style Active Compared to peers, my child..
- very active.
- ..never sits still.
A 0.76 3.36 (0.88)
Parenting practices Diet Restriction unhealthy intake (CFQ) - I have to be sure that my child does not eat..
* ..too many sweets (candy, ice cream, pastries).
* ..too many high-fat foods.
* ..too much of his/her favorite foods.
- As a reward for good behavior, I offer my child..
* ..his/her favorite foods.
* ..sweets (candy, ice cream, pastries).
- If I did not guide or regulate my child's eating, (s)he would eat..
* ..too much of his/her favorite foods.
* ..too many junk foods.
- I intentionally keep some foods out of my child's reach.
A 0.63 3.32 (0.61)
   Monitoring intake (CFQ) How much do you keep track of..
- ..the sweets (candy, ice cream, pies, pastries) that your child eats?
- ..the snack food (potato chips, nuts, cheese puffs) that your child eats?
- ..the high-fat foods that your child eats?
B 0.86 4.41 (0.56)
   Stimulation healthy intake - I make sure that my child eats enough healthy food products.
- I get my child enthusiastic about healthy products, such as vegetables, fruit and whole meal products.
A 0.54 4.57 (0.55)
Parenting practices Activity Restriction sedentary behavior - I have to be sure that my child does not..
* too much television.
* too many computer games.
- As a reward for good behavior, I put on a nice video/DVD/computer game for my child.
- If I did not guide or regulate my child's activity behavior, (s)he would..
* watch too much television or play too many computer games.
* not get enough physical activity.
- I intentionally keep my child away from the television or computer.
A 0.59 3.01 (0.68)
   Monitoring activity How much do you keep track of...
- ..the amount of television your child watches and how many computer games (s)he plays?
- ..the amount of physical activity your child has?
B 0.65 3.94 (0.78)
   Stimulation to be active - If my child says "I don't feel like walking or bicycling to there", I try to get him/her to do this anyway.
- I have to be careful that my child gets enough exercise.
- I make sure that my child travels actively on foot or by bicycle (with or without me) as often as possible.
A 0.57 4.26 (0.65)
  1. a Answering scale: A. 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree); B. 1 (never) to 5 (always)
  2. b Reliability of the sum scale as measured by Cronbach's α.
  3. Notes: SD = standard deviation, CFQ = Child Feeding Questionnaire [37].