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Table 2 Child and parent correlates of parenting practices at child's age of 5 years (N = 2021)

From: Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

     Standardized regression coefficients (β) a
     Parenting Practices
     Diet-related Activity-related
     Restric-tion un-healthy Monito-ring Stimu-lation healthy Restric-tion se-dentary Monito-ring Stimu-lation PA
Child characteristics General Gender (boy = 1, girl = 2)   0.08** 0.01 0.03 -0.07** 0.00 -0.02
   Birth weight (grams)   0.00 0.00 -0.03 0.03 0.01 0.00
   BMI z-score 5 years   0.10*** 0.05 0.07* 0.05 0.03 0.03
  Diet Eating style Hungry 0.14*** -0.05 -0.04 b b b
    Picky 0.21*** 0.00 -0.21*** b b b
  Activity Activity style Active b b b -0.13*** -0.02 0.06*
Parental characteristics Maternal BMI   -0.10** -0.03 -0.14*** -0.05 -0.03 -0.05
   Educational level (compared to medium) Low -0.05 -0.02 -0.07* 0.02 0.00 -0.07*
    High 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.09** 0.04 0.02
   Employment (hours per week)   -0.01 -0.07* -0.03 0.00 -0.10*** -0.09**
   Country of birth (NL = 0, other = 1)   -0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.01 -0.01 0.00
   Age at birth of child (years)   0.00 -0.01 0.03 0.01 -0.02 -0.03
  Paternal BMI   0,01 -0.02 0.02 0.03 -0.03 0.03
   Educational level (compared to medium) Low 0.00 -0.02 0.01 -0.05 -0.04 0.02
    High 0.04 -0.07* 0.03 0.02 0.03 -0.02
   Employment (hours per week)   0.00 0.01 -0.03 -0.01 0.03 0.00
   Country of birth (NL = 0, other = 1)   0.05 0.02 0.00 -0.01 0.01 -0.01
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. aParenting practices were assessed on a scale from 1-5. All independent variables were entered simultaneously. All analyses were adjusted for recruitment group.
  3. bVariable not included in the current analysis. Eating style was only included as a predictor in the analyses using diet-related practices as dependent variables; activity style was only included in the analyses using activity-related practices as dependent variables.
  4. Notes: BMI = Body mass index, PA = Physical activity, NL = the Netherlands.