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Table 3 Association between parenting practices at child's age 5 and child's dietary intake and activity behavior at 5 years (N = 2021)

From: Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

   Standardized regression coefficients (β) a
Parenting practice Energy intake (kJ/day) Fiber intake (g/MJ) Added sugar intake (En%) Physical activity (minutes/day) Sedentary behavior (minutes/day)
Diet Restriction unhealthy intake -0.03 -0.01 -0.04 b b
  Monitoring intake -0.02 0.09** -0.08** b b
  Stimulation healthy intake 0.01 0.18*** -0.07** b b
PA Restriction sedentary time b b b -0.19*** 0.09**
  Monitoring activity b b b 0.03 -0.03
  Stimulation PA b b b 0.12*** -0.12***
  1. ** p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. aAnalyses were adjusted for child BMI z-score at age 5, recruitment group (alternative vs. conventional), child background characteristics (gender, birth weight, activity style and eating style) and parent background characteristics (parental BMI, educational level, employment and country of birth; and maternal age).
  3. bVariable not included in the current analysis. Diet-related parenting practices were only included as a predictor in the analyses using dietary behaviors as dependent variables; activity-related parenting practices were only included in the analyses using the activity behaviors as dependent variables.
  4. Notes: kJ = kilo Joules; g/MJ = intake in grams of nutrient per MJ of total energy intake; En% = Energy intake of nutrient as a percentage of total energy intake; PA = Physical activity.