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Table 4 Association between parenting practices at age 5 and child's BMI development up to age 7

From: Association between parenting practices and children's dietary intake, activity behavior and development of body mass index: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study

   Standardized regression coefficients (β) a
Parenting practice BMI z-score (including underweightb children, N = 1513) BMI z-score (excluding underweight b children, N = 1326)
Diet Restriction unhealthy intake 0.01 0.01
  Monitoring intake 0.02 0.03
  Stimulation healthy intake -0.06* -0.07*
Activity Restriction sedentary time 0.06* 0.05
  Monitoring activity -0.02 0.00
  Stimulation PA 0.01 -0.01
  1. p < 0.10; * p < 0.05
  2. aAnalyses were adjusted for child BMI z-score at age 5, recruitment group (alternative vs. conventional), child background characteristics (gender, birth weight, activity style and eating style) and parent background characteristics (parental BMI, educational level, employment and country of birth; and maternal age).
  3. bUnderweight at age 5 was defined as a BMI z-score < 5th percentile.
  4. Notes: BMI = Body mass index, PA = Physical activity.