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Table 1 Participants described and compared by eating competence categories

From: Validation of a measure of the Satter eating competence model with low-income females

   Eating Competence Categories  
  Total Sample1 Not Eating Competent2 Eating Competent2 p-Value3
  N = 507 N = 359 N = 148  
Age 31.81 ± 6.98 31.84 ± 6.96 31.76 ± 7.06 .905
Race (n = 499)     .588
   White 389 (78.0) 279 (79.0) 110 (75.3)  
   Black 73 (14.6) 48 (13.6) 25 (17.1)  
   Other 37 (7.4) 26 (7.4) 11 (7.5)  
Hispanic (n = 506) 31 (6.1) 18 (5.0) 13 (8.8) .109
Education     .006
   Some high school 56 (11.0) 39 (10.9) 17 (11.5)  
   High school diploma/GED 179 (35.3) 118 (32.9) 61 (41.2)  
   Some college 129 (25.4) 107 (29.8) 22 (14.9)  
   ≥ College degree 143(28.2) 95 (26.5) 48 (32.4)  
Parent 490 (96.6) 347 (96.7) 143 (96.6) .984
Food Security Status4 (n = 500)     .009
   High 113 (22.6) 70 (19.8) 43 (29.5)  
   Marginal 83 (16.6) 53 (15.0) 30 (20.5)  
   Low 103 (20.6) 74 (20.9) 29 (19.9)  
   Very Low 201 (40.2) 157 (44.4) 44 (30.1)  
Physically Active5 (n = 506) 256 (50.6) 159 (44.4) 97 (65.5) <.001
BMI (kg/m2) (n = 500) 30.41 ± 8.36 31.22 ± 8.44 28.44 ± 7.86 .001
Weight Categories (n = 500)     .025
   Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 17 (3.4) 12 (3.4) 5 (3.4)  
   Normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) 137 (27.4) 84 (23.7) 53 (36.3)  
   Overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9) 118 (23.6) 84 (23.7) 34 (23.3)  
   Obese (BMI ≥ 30.0) 228 (45.6) 174 (49.2) 54 (37.0)  
Weight dissatisfaction6 (n = 506) 3.75 ± 1.23 3.94 ± 1.13 3.28 ± 1.33 <.001
ecSI/LI     
   Total score 26.29 ± 9.70 21.36 ± 6.41 38.26 ± 4.53 <.001
   Eating attitudes 9.52 ± 3.71 7.87 ± 2.99 13.53 ± 1.66 <.001
   Internal regulation 5.45 ± 2.35 4.48 ± 1.96 7.80 ± 1.37 <.001
   Food acceptance 3.93 ± 2.14 3.31 ± 1.84 5.44 ± 2.08 <.001
   Contextual skills 7.39 ± 3.80 5.70 ± 2.81 11.49 ± 2.57 <.001
TFEQ     
   Cognitive restraint 10.52 ± 2.12 10.45 ± 2.04 10.68 ± 2.30 .289
   Disinhibition 7.74 ± 2.76 8.11 ± 2.73 6.83 ± 2.61 <.001
   Feelings of hunger 6.69 ± 2.61 6.90 ± 2.68 6.16 ± 2.38 .004
EDI-3 7     
   Drive for thinness 13.19 ± 15.44 14.53 ± 15.87 9.93 ± 13.85 .002
   Bulimia 26.03 ± 26.30 28.79 ± 26.57 19.33 ± 24.44 <.001
   Body dissatisfaction 29.51 ± 25.08 32.89 ± 25.16 21.32 ± 22.98 <.001
   Low self-esteem 21.13 ± 21.53 24.18 ± 21.99 13.75 ± 18.47 <.001
   Personal alienation 23.88 ± 24.30 27.63 ± 25.34 14.80 ± 18.76 <.001
   Interpersonal insecurity 32.37 ± 25.68 35.70 ± 25.48 24.31 ± 24.40 <.001
   Interpersonal alienation 34.80 ± 27.04 38.94 ± 26.69 24.76 ± 25.26 <.001
   Interoceptive deficits 17.30 ± 20.02 19.18 ± 20.58 12.76 ± 17.87 .001
   Emotional dysregulation 31.13 ± 29.22 33.28 ± 28.84 25.94 ± 29.57 .010
   Perfectionism 22.27 ± 22.09 21.60 ± 21.09 23.89 ± 24.35 .290
   Asceticism 16.81 ± 20.51 17.62 ± 21.00 14.85 ± 19.20 .168
   Maturity fears 46.17 ± 27.31 49.28 ± 27.24 38.62 ± 26.05 <.001
Food Preference     
   Food like index8 7.85 ± 0.60 7.75 ± 0.59 8.10 ± 0.56 <.001
   Food dislike index9 2.78 ± 0.83 2.76 ± 0.80 2.83 ± 0.90 .461
   Foods never tried 1.88 ± 2.89 1.84 ± 2.87 2.00 ± 2.95 .561
Fruit Stage of Change 10     
   Action/Maintenance 209 (41.2) 130 (36.2) 79 (53.4) <.001
Vegetable Stage of change 10     
   Action/Maintenance 62 (12.2) 33 (9.2) 29 (19.6) .001
EFNEP 11     
• Health locus of control 12.13 ± 2.05 12.01 ± 2.09 12.45 ± 1.93 .028
• Plans meals ahead of time 3.22 ± 1.06 3.04 ± 1.03 3.64 ± 1.00 <.001
• Plans meals to include all food groups 3.36 ± 1.00 3.21 ± 0.98 3.74 ± 0.95 <.001
• Makes a recipe successfully from scratch 3.53 ± 1.17 3.36 ± 1.18 3.95 ± 1.06 <.001
• Thinks about healthy food choices when deciding what to eat 3.43 ± 1.01 3.30 ± 0.99 3.74 ± 0.99 <.001
• Uses the "Nutrition Facts" on the food label to make food choices 2.70 ± 1.19 2.61 ± 1.14 2.93 ± 1.29 .006
• Eats out (including fast food) 2.56 ± 0.77 2.58 ± 0.79 2.52 ± 0.73 .412
• Shops with a grocery list 3.58 ± 1.19 3.48 ± 1.15 3.80 ± 1.25 .007
• Feels confident about managing money to make healthy food available 2.97 ± 1.18 2.87 ± 1.15 3.21 ± 1.21 .003
Prepares food at home > 3 times per week12 403 (79.5) 273 (76.0) 130 (87.8) .003
Likes cooking13 (n = 503) 227 (45.1) 142 (39.9) 85 (57.8) <.001
  1. Notes: Values are mean ± standard deviation or n (%); BMI = Body Mass Index; ecSI/LI = ecSatter Inventory for Low-Income; EDI-3 = Eating Disorders Inventory-3; EFNEP = Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program; TFEQ = Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; all measures are self-reported.
  2. 1N = 507 except where noted.
  3. 2Not eating competent = ecSILI < 32; eating competent = ecSILI ≥ 32.
  4. 3P-value for chi-square or t-test comparing eating competence categories.
  5. 4Reported for household.
  6. 5Survey item, "Do you consider yourself a physically active person? Response options - yes or no.
  7. 6Survey item, "How satisfied are you with your current weight?" 5-point response scale ranging from 1 = very satisfied to 5 = very unsatisfied.
  8. 7EDI-3 entries are normed percentiles.
  9. 8Food like index = Preference score of foods liked (denoted by preference selection of 5 to 9) divided by number of foods like. Possible range 5 though 9; higher score denotes greater preference.
  10. 9Food dislike index = preference score of foods disliked divided by number of foods disliked. Possible range 1 through 4; higher score denotes greater dislike.
  11. 10Computed scores collapsed to two categories - pre-action (precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation) vs. action/maintenance.
  12. 11For locus of control, range: 5 = external locus of control, 15 = internal locus of control. For all other EFNEP items, range: 1 = does not do, 5 = almost always does.
  13. 12Compared to preparing food at home ≤ 3 times per week.
  14. 13Survey item, "How do you feel about cooking?" Response options - Likes cooking compared to Doesn't Like/Doesn't Mind Cooking.