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Table 2 Growth Curve Models Examining How Parenting Relates to Changes in Average Minutes Per Day of MVPA Between Ages 9 and 15 Years

From: Parenting and the decline of physical activity from age 9 to 15

  Boys (N = 396) Girls (N = 405)
  p-value Estimate ESa p-value Estimate ESa
Intercept @ Age 9   183.51    164.04  
White (0) vs non-White (1) 0.77 1.47 0.01 0.46 3.94 0.04
Low-Income @ Age 9: Yes (1), No (0) 0.049* 10.15 0.07 0.17 7.07 0.07
Single-Parent Family: Yes (1), No (0) 0.19 6.58 0.04 0.86 0.83 0.01
Region 0.12    0.11   
   Midwest   14.07 0.08   13.61 0.12
   Northeast   5.21 0.03   4.85 0.04
   South   2.95 0.02   9.74 0.08
   West (reference)       
Puberty: Early (1), Later (0) 0.19 -6.62 0.06 0.89 0.55 0.01
BMI Percentile <0.001* -0.41 0.19 0.023* -0.16 0.10
High Level Parental Monitoring: Yes (1), No (0) 0.046* -8.70 0.07 0.74 -1.48 0.02
Parental Encouragement: Days per Week 0.002* 2.73 0.11 0.62 0.38 0.02
Parental Participation: Days per Week 0.80 -0.30 0.01 0.18 1.43 0.05
Parental Transportation: Days per Week 0.042* 2.55 0.07 <0.001* 4.99 0.14
Parental Exercise: Days per Week 0.44 0.75 0.03 .01* 2.22 0.09
Low-Income × Parental Transportation 0.71 -0.81 0.01 <0.001* -7.82 0.14
Early Puberty × Parental Encouragement 0.01* -5.22 0.09 0.29 -1.73 0.05
Early Puberty × High Parental Monitoring 0.14 14.70 0.06 0.30 -8.07 0.05
Linear Slope (Age) <0.001* -35.57 0.65 <0.001* -37.73 0.76
Age × White vs Non-White 0.89 0.15 0.01 0.81 0.26 0.01
Age × Low-Income 0.60 -0.60 0.03 0.33 -1.04 0.05
Age × Single Parent Family 0.86 0.21 0.01 0.64 -0.50 0.02
Age × Region <0.001*    <0.001*   
   Age × Midwest   -5.42 0.19   -3.61 0.17
   Age × Northeast   -0.71 0.03   -0.21 0.01
   Age × South   -2.40 0.10   -3.67 0.17
   Age × West (reference)       
Age × BMI Percentile 0.003* 0.05 0.14 0.06 0.03 0.10
Age × High Parental Monitoring 0.27 -1.03 0.05 0.69 0.37 0.02
Age × Parental Encouragement 0.08 -0.35 0.07 0.49 -0.14 0.03
Age × Parental Participation 0.22 0.37 0.05 0.37 -0.24 0.04
Age × Parental Transportation 0.21 -0.34 0.05 0.003* -0.76 0.12
Age × Parental Exercise 0.38 -0.21 0.04 0.40 -0.19 0.04
Age × Low-Income × Parental Transportation 0.64 -0.23 0.02 0.013* 1.18 0.11
Age × Early Puberty × Parental Encouragement 0.034* 1.02 0.09 0.014* 1.04 0.12
Age × Early Puberty × Parental Monitoring 0.44 1.49 0.04 0.32 1.42 0.06
Quadratic Slope (Age × Age) <0.001* 2.68 0.36 <0.001* 2.84 0.51
  1. Child's age is centered at age 9 years; BMI percentile, parental encouragement, parental participation, parental transportation, and parental exercise are grand mean centered.
  2. a Effect size for 2-level categorical variables was calculated using Cohen's d and effect size for region was calculated using Cohen's f. Cohen, J (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  3. * Statistically significant