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Table 1 Summary of studies included in this systematic review

From: GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

  Population    GIS measures    AT measure     
Author (year) (reference code) Sample size Age range (years)/Grade range sex Country (locality) Environmental variables Operational definition of neighbourhood Geocode Modes Data source Recall period Classification % AST
Babey (2009) [21] 3451 12-17 MF US (California) Distance to school; urbanisation Not reported Not reported Walk, bike, or skateboard b 7 days* Walking or biking or skateboarding to or from school at least once a week 49.3%
Braza (2004) [20] 34 schools (2993 students) Grade 5 MF US (California) Neighbourhood population density; street connectivity 800-meter radial buffer around school Street address Walk, bike, car, bus b On the day of data collection Percent of students walking or biking to school 33%
Bringolf-Isler (2008) [26] 1031 6-7; 9-10; 13-14 MF Switzerland Distance to school; length of street segment; altitude between home and school; population density 200-meter buffer around the straight-line between participant's home and school Not reported Walk, bike/kick scooter/inline skates, car, bus/tram/train or others a Usual travel Usually walking or biking to and from school both in winter and summer 77.8%
Ewing (2004) [19] 709 trips Grade K-12 MF US (Florida) Commercial floor area ratio, street density, average sidewalk width, proportion of street miles with street trees, proportion of street miles with bike lanes or paved shoulders, proportion of street miles with sidewalks Not reported Not reported Travel diary-school trips-walk, bike, bus b -- i)Walking and ii) biking --
Kerr (2006) [16] 259 5-18 MF US (Seattle) Neighbourhood and individual walkability index (residential density, mixed land use, intersection density); neighbourhood income 1-km Euclidean and network buffer around home Street address Walk, bike, ride in a car or school bus, public transport to and from school a Usual travel Walking or biking to and from school at least once a week 25.1%
Larsen (2009) [23] 810 11-13 MF Canada (London) Street trees; intersection density; sidewalk length; land use mix; distance to school; net dwelling density; net residential density; single parenthood; educational attainment; median household 1-mile radial buffer around school and 500-meter radial buffer around home Postal code Walk, bike, scooter, skateboard, rollerblade, school bus, city bus, driven in a car b Usual travel Non-motorized vs. motorized i) to school and ii) from school 62% to school and 72% from school
Lin (2010) [29] 330 Grade 1-6 MF Taiwan (Taipei) Residential density; employment density; building density; road density; land use; block size; sidewalk width; sidewalk coverage; intersection number along the route to school; vehicle lane width; shade tree density; slope gradient Not reported Not reported Walk, bus, vanpool, motorcycle, car b Unknown Walking i) to school and ii) from school About 40% walking i) to and ii) from school
Martin (2007) [22] 7433 9-15 MF US Geographic regions; urbanisation Not reported Not reported Walk, bike a Usual travel Walking or biking to school at least once a week 47.9%
McDonald (2007) [18] 614 5-18 MF US (California) Dwelling units density; employment density; land use mix; residential index; average block size; intersection density; % each way intersections; % on public assistance; % living below poverty line; % female-headed family; % unemployed; % non-white; % foreign born; % owner-occupied housing; % living in same house 1995 800-meter radial buffer around home Street address Walk a,b 2 days Walking to school 38% for trip less than 1.6 km and 5% greater than 1.6 km
Mitra (2010) [24] 1548 school trips 11-13 MF Canada (Greater Toronto Area) Density of school, urbanisation, Employment to population ratio, median household income Traffic analysis zone (TAZ) ** Walk c 1 day Walking i) to and ii) from school --
Mitra (2010) [25] 8009 school trips (4009 to school and 4000 from school) 11-13 MF Canada (Greater Toronto Area) Distance to school, work/school-trip density, median household income, intersection density, number of street blocks, distance between central business district and home, ratio of sales/service employment to the population, ratio of manufacturing/trade/office/professional employment to the population 400-meter straight-line buffer around home and school unknown Walk c 1 day Walking i) to and ii) from school --
Panter (2010) [27] 2012 9-10 MF United Kingdom (Norfolk) Road outside child's home; road density; proportion of primary roads; building density; streetlight density; traffic accidents per km; pavement density; effective walkable area; connected node ratio/connectivity; junction density, land-use mix, socioeconomic deprivation; urbanisation
(around home)
Streetlight density; traffic accidents per km; main/secondary road en route; route directness; percent of route to school within an urban area; land-use mix (along route)
800-meter street network buffer around home and 100-meter buffer around the shortest route to school Street address Walk, bike, car, bus, train b Usual travel i) Walking and ii)biking to school 40.0% walking to school and 9.2% biking to school
Schlossberg (2006) [17] 287 Grade 6-8 MF US (Oregon) Distance to school; route directness; intersection density; dead-end density; crossing major roads and rail roads 200-meter buffer around the estimated route to school Street address Walk, bike, car, carpool, school bus, program van and other a Usual travel i) Walking and ii) biking as primary mode (three days or more a week) 15% to school and 25% from school
Timpero (2006) [28] 912 5-6 and 10-12 MF Australia (Melbourne) Distance to school; busy-road barrier; route along busy road; pedestrian route directness; steep incline en route to school; area-level SES Along the estimated route to school Street address walk, bike a Usual travel Never; walking or biking one-four times a week; and five times or more a week Five times or more a week: 27.2% (5-6 yr); 38.5% (10-12 yr)
  1. a parent-report; b self-report; c proxy report from an adult household member;
  2. *Adolescents who were not in school in the past week, but attended school in the past year, were asked about a typical school week.
  3. **The telephone interviews were stratified by Traffic Analysis Zone and these data were aggregated at the level of Traffic Analysis Zone