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Table 4 Summary of relationships between GIS-measured environmental factors and AST

From: GIS measured environmental correlates of active school transport: A systematic review of 14 studies

  Individual Trip School
Environmental variables -ve +ve Null -ve +ve Null -ve +ve Null
Distance to school [17]a,b [18]j [21, 23]c,d [2628]a,b,h,i [29]d,m   [18]k [29]c [25]c,d      
Distance to central business district       [25]c,d,e,f    
Residential density   [16, 18]k [23]d,e [18]j [23]c,e,f, [23]d,f [26, 29]c,d      [20]  
Residential index    [18]j,k       
Employment density    [18]j,k [29]c,d [24]c [25]c,e,h [25]d,e,f,n [24]d [25]c,f,n [25]c,d,e,f,o    
Building density   [29]d,l [27]a,b,e [29]c       
School density      [24]d [24]c    
Density of school- or work-related trips      [25]c,d,e,f     
Vehicle density   [29]d,l [29]c       
Mixed land use   [23]c,d,f [29]c,l [16, 18]j,k [23]c,d,e [27]a,b,e,g [29]d       
Commercial floor area ratio       [19]a,b    
Intersection density   [17]a [29]c,g,m [16, 17]b [18]j,k [23]c,d,e,f [27]a,b,e [29]c,d,e [29]d,g    [25]c,d,e,f    [20]
Percent of each way intersections    [18]j,k       
Connected node ratio [27]a,b,e         
Cul-de-sac density [17]a   [17]b       
Design-connectivity-route directness      
Route directness [28]i [27]a,b   [17]a,b [28]h       
Block/road density   [27]a,b,e [29]c,d   [25]d,e [19]a,b [25]c,d,f [25]c,e    
Average block size [29]c,m [29]d,l   [18]j,k       
Length of motorway    [26]       
Length of main street    [26]       
Length of side street    [26]       
Proportion of primary roads    [27]a,b,e       
Vehicle lane width    [25]c,d       
Design-Pedestrian-sidewalk and bike lanes
Sidewalk length    [23]c,d,e,f       
Sidewalk width    [29]c,d    [19]a,b    
Sidewalk density   [29]c,m [27]a,b,e [29]d   [19]a [19]b    
Bike lane density       [19]a,b    
Street spatial design
Rail roads crossing    [17]a,b,g       
Motorway crossing    [26]g       
Major roads crossing    [17]a,b,g       
Main street crossing [26]g         
Side street crossing    [26]g       
Busy road crossing [28]g,h,i         
Busy/main road along the route [27]a,b   [28]h,i       
Main road outside child's home    [27]a,b,e       
Proportion of primary roads    [27]a,b,g       
Walkability index
Individual walkability index   [16]        
Neighbourhood walkability index   [16]        
Effective walkable area    [27]a,b,e       
Greenery   [23]c,e [23]c,f [23]d,e,f [29]c,d    [19]a,b    
Steep incline [28]h [29]d,m   [26, 28]i [29]c       
Geographic regions [22]*         
Urbanisation   [21, 22] [27]a,b,e,q   [24]c,d     
Density of traffic accidents    [27]a,b,q,e       
Streetlight density    [27]a,b,e,g       
Demographic-socioeconomic factors (income, employment)
Area-level SES    [28]h,i       
Neighbourhood income [23]d,f   [16]
[23]c,e,f [23]d,e
[25]c,d,e,f [24]c,d     
Socioeconomic deprivation   [27]a,b,e        
Percent of residents on public assistance    [18]j,k       
Percent of residents living below poverty line    [18]j,k       
Percent of residents unemployed    [18]j,k       
Educational attainment at neighbourhood level    [23]c,d,e,f       
Percent of residents living in owner-occupied housing    [18]j,k       
Percent of residents living in the same house since 1995    [18]j,k       
Percent of residents living in female headed households    [18]j,k       
Percent of residents born aboard    [18]j,k       
Percent of residents being Black    [18]j,k       
Single parenthood at neighbourhood level    [23]c,d,e,f       
Neighbourhood walkability × income   [16]        
Neighbourhood walkability × parental concern   [16]        
Distance to school × community [26]#         
Distance to central business district × block density [25]c,d,e,##         
  1. a walk; b bike; c to school; d from school; e home neighbourhood; f school neighbourhood; g en route; h 5-6 years old; i 10-12 years old; j trip less than 1.6 km; k trip greater than 1.6 km; l dependent travel; m independent travel
  2. n the ratio of manufacturing/trade/office/professional employment to the population; o the ratio of sales/service employment to the population
  3. *In U.S., adolescents living in South region were less likely to actively commute to school than those in Northeast region.
  4. #The strongest relationship between distance between home and school on AST was found in Biel (German-speaking) followed by Biel (French-speaking) and Bern.
  5. ##Children living in a neighbourhood with smaller blocks and located far from the central business district were less likely to walk than those living in a place with larger blocks and located closer to the central business district.