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Table 5 Association between neighbourhood walkability and ≥ 60 mins/week of walking (transport, recreation and total) using different computations of land use mix

From: How important is the land use mix measure in understanding walking behaviour? Results from the RESIDE study

  Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d Model 5e
WI Quartile OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Transport walking ≥ 60 min/week:           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 1.32 (0.91,1.90) 0.143 1.42 (0.98,2.05) 0.064 1.40 (0.97,2.02) 0.071 0.77 (0.53,1.13) 0.184 1.31 (0.91,1.89) 0.151
Med-High 1.06 (0.72,1.54) 0.779 1.00 (0.68,1.48) 0.984 1.29 (0.89,1.87) 0.187 1.25 (0.88,1.78) 0.204 1.29 (0.89,1.86) 0.181
High 2.02 (1.43,2.87) < 0.01 2.24 (1.58,3.18) < 0.01 1.78 (1.25,2.55) < 0.01 1.47 (1.05,2.07) 0.026 1.77 (1.24,2.52) < 0.01
Trend (quartiles) 1.23 (1.10,1.37) < 0.01 1.25 (1.12,1.40) < 0.01 1.18 (1.05,1.32) < 0.01 1.18 (1.06,1.32) < 0.01 1.19 (1.06,1.33) < 0.01
Trend (z-score) 1.11 (1.06,1.17) < 0.01 1.12 (1.06,1.18) < 0.01 1.11 (1.05,1.17) < 0.01 1.11 (1.05,1.17) < 0.01 1.10 (1.04,1.16) < 0.01
Residential density (z-score)* 1.03 (0.91,1.17) 0.635 1.03 (0.90,1.17) 0.689 1.05 (0.93,1.19) 0.438 1.05 (0.93,1.19) 0.432 1.06 (0.94,1.20) 0.352
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.22 (1.07,1.39) < 0.01 1.22 (1.07,1.39) < 0.01 1.21 (1.07,1.38) < 0.01 1.21 (1.06,1.38) < 0.01 1.21 (1.06,1.38) < 0.01
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.12 (0.99,1.28) 0.068 1.14 (1.01,1.29) 0.037 1.07 (0.95,1.21) 0.282 1.09 (0.97,1.24) 0.156 1.04 (0.92,1.18) 0.537
Recreation walking ≥ 60 min/week:           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.91 (0.70,1.19) 0.502 0.91 (0.69,1.19) 0.472 0.98 (0.75,1.28) 0.866 0.96 (0.73,1.26) 0.757 0.86 (0.66,1.13) 0.285
Med-High 0.86 (0.66,1.13) 0.278 0.85 (0.65,1.11) 0.241 0.99 (0.75,1.30) 0.937 1.09 (0.83,1.42) 0.540 1.03 (0.78,1.34) 0.849
High 1.10 (0.84,1.44) 0.482 1.12 (0.86,1.46) 0.412 1.29 (0.99,1.69) 0.062 1.29 (0.98,1.68) 0.065 1.24 (0.95,1.63) 0.110
Trend (quartiles) 1.02 (0.94,1.11) 0.591 1.03 (0.94,1.12) 0.525 1.08 (0.99,1.18) 0.071 1.09 (1.00,1.19) 0.041 1.09 (1.00,1.18) 0.054
Trend (z-score) 1.02 (0.97,1.06) 0.496 1.01 (0.97,1.06) 0.529 1.02 (0.98,1.07) 0.309 1.04 (0.99,1.09) 0.085 1.03 (0.98,1.07) 0.254
Residential density (z-score)* 1.03 (0.93,1.15) 0.560 1.03 (0.93,1.15) 0.539 1.02 (0.92,1.14) 0.689 1.01 (0.91,1.12) 0.850 1.02 (0.92,1.13) 0.708
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.03 (0.93,1.14) 0.594 1.03 (0.93,1.14) 0.595 1.03 (0.93,1.14) 0.610 1.02 (0.92,1.13) 0.684 1.02 (0.92,1.14) 0.648
Land use mix (z-score)* 0.98 (0.89,1.08) 0.708 0.98 (0.88,1.08) 0.625 1.02 (0.92,1.13) 0.696 1.10 (1.00,1.21) 0.054 1.03 (0.94,1.14) 0.509
Total walking ≥ 60 min/week:           
Low 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Med-Low 0.96 (0.74,1.25) 0.774 1.00 (0.77,1.30) 0.991 1.14 (0.87,1.48) 0.347 0.92 (0.70,1.20) 0.530 0.94 (0.72,1.23) 0.651
Med-High 0.94 (0.72,1.22) 0.625 0.92 (0.71,1.20) 0.544 1.07 (0.82,1.40) 0.604 1.08 (0.83,1.41) 0.556 1.03 (0.79,1.34) 0.828
High 1.35 (1.04,1.77) 0.026 1.38 (1.05,1.79) 0.019 1.48 (1.14,1.94) < 0.01 1.36 (1.05,1.78) 0.022 1.39 (1.06,1.81) 0.016
Trend (quartiles) 1.09 (1.00,1.19) 0.041 1.09 (1.00,1.19) 0.043 1.12 (1.03,1.22) < 0.01 1.12 (1.03,1.21) 0.011 1.11 (1.02,1.21) 0.012
Trend (z-score) 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.011 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.011 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.010 1.08 (1.03,1.13) < 0.01 1.06 (1.01,1.11) 0.011
Residential density (z-score)* 1.04 (0.93,1.15) 0.525 1.04 (0.93,1.15) 0.524 1.04 (0.93,1.16) 0.476 1.04 (0.93,1.15) 0.526 1.04 (0.94,1.16) 0.422
Connectivity (z-score)* 1.08 (0.97,1.20) 0.156 1.08 (0.97,1.20) 0.154 1.07 (0.97,1.19) 0.174 1.07 (0.96,1.19) 0.204 1.07 (0.97,1.19) 0.197
Land use mix (z-score)* 1.07 (0.97,1.18) 0.202 1.07 (0.97,1.18) 0.202 1.07 (0.97,1.18) 0.179 1.13 (1.03,1.25) 0.011 1.06 (0.96,1.17) 0.230
  1. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; *Denotes multivariate association; a Model 1 = Residential+Retail+Office+Health, welfare & community; b Model 2 = Model 1+Entertainment, culture & recreation; c Model 3 = Model 2+Public Open Space, Sporting infrastructure & Primary and rural; d Model 4 = Model 3+Unclassified land; e Model 5 = Residential+Retail+Health, welfare & community+Entertainment, culture & recreation+Public open space, Sporting infrastructure & Primary and rural. All models adjusted for gender, age, education level, marital status and presence of children at home.