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Table 2 Studies of free-living behaviour reporting percent of participants meeting select step-defined cut points in adults

From: How many steps/day are enough? for adults

First Author Sample Characteristics Instrument Monitoring Frame Steps/day cut points used % Meeting
Specified Cut point
Tudor-Locke [22]
USA
2004
76 men, 133 women; population-based survey of Sumter County, South Carolina; 18+ years of age Yamax SW-200, Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan 7 days 5,000
9,000
10,000
44% < 5,000
19.6 ≥ 9,000
13.9% ≥ 10,000
Miller [50]
Australia
2004
74 men, 111 women;
workplace employees;
18 to 75 years
Yamax SW 700 7 days 10,000 Men: 24.4%
Women: 34.2%
Behrens [51]
USA
2005
18 men, 18 women;
college students;
23.3 ± 3.1 years
Digi-walker (Model DW-200, Yamax, Tokyo, Japan)
Actigraph 7164, Manufacturing Technology Incorporated, Fort Walton Beach, FL
7 days 10,000 80%
Wyatt [21]
USA
2005
344 men, 386 women; 18+ years of age; Colorado statewide representative sample Yamax SW-200, Yamasa Corporation, Tokyo, Japan 4 days Adult Graduated Step Index 33% < 5,000
29% 5,000-7,499
22% 7,500-9,999
9% 10,000-12,500
7% > 12,5000
Behrens [78]
USA
2005
204 men, 237 women;
college students;
20.05 ± 1.82 years
Actigraph 7164, Manufacturing Technology Incorporated, Fort Walton Beach, FL 7 days 10,000 Overall: 67.35%
Men: 69.6%
Women: 65.4%
Hornbuckle [79]
USA
2005
69 women; self-identified African American volunteers; 40-62 years of age New Lifestyles Digi-Walker SW-200, New Lifestyles, Inc., Lees Summit MO 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index 38% < 5,000
46% 5,000-7,499
16% ≥7,500
Bennett [80]
USA
2006
153 men, 280 women;
Multiethnic low-income housing residents;
18 to 70+ years
Yamax SW200 5 days sedentary index: 5,000;
normative for healthy adults: 7,000-13,000;
normative for healthy older adults: 6,000-8,500
56% < 5,000
24% 7,000-13,000
8% of those 50+ took between 6,000 and 8,500
McCormack [25]
Australia
2006
205 men, 223 women;
state wide community sample;
≥18 years
Yamax Digi-walker SW-700 7 days 10,000 Men: 50.2%
Women: 40.8%
De Cocker [26]
Belgium
2007
598 men, 624 women; random sample from public record office; 25 to 75 years Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index 12.9% < 5000
19.4% 5000-7499
26.2% 7500-9999
21.1% 10,000-12,500
20.5% > 12,5000
De Cocker [81]
Belgium
2008
146 men, 164 women;
healthy adults;
38.7 ± 11.9 years
Yamax Digiwalker SW-200, (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) 7 days 7,500
10,000
12,500
≥7,500: 80.6%
≥10,000: 45%
≥12,500: 39.4%
Mitsui [82]
Japan
2008
62 men,117 women;
recruited through medical check-up at public health center;
48 to 69 years
EM-180, YAMASA, Tokyo, Japan 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index Men
30.6% < 5000
25.8% 5000-7499
17.7% 7500-9999
25.8% ≥10000
Women
28.2% < 5000
35.0% 5000-7499
24.8% 7500-9999
12.0% ≥10000
Payn [74]
USA
2008
25 men, 60 women;
community sample, ambulatory and without cognitive impairment;
45+ years
Yamax Digi Walker SW-200, Yamax USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index 29.4% ≤ 5000
43.5% 5001-9999
27.1% ≥ 10,000
McKercher [59]
Australia
2009
766 men, 869 women;
young adults participating in a longitudinal study;
26 to 36 years
Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index Men
8.2% < 5,000
29.6% 5,000-7,499
27.7% 7,500-9,999
19.7% 10,000-12,499
14.8% 12,500+
Women
6.7% < 5,000
28.2% 5,000-7,499
33.5% 7,500-9,999
21.1% 10,000-12,499
10.6% 12,500+
Schmidt [30]
Australia
2009
887 men, 906 women; 26 to 36 years Yamax SW-200 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index Men
7.8% 0-4,999
27.9% 5,000-7,499
27.3% 7,500-9,999
21.4% 10,000-12,999
15.7% 12,500+
Women
6.2% 0-4,999
27.9% 5,000-7,499
33.2% 7,500-9,999
21.3% 10,000-12,999
11.4% 12,500+
Tudor-Locke [83]
USA
2011
1781 men, 1963 women;
NHANES participants (nationally representative);
20 to 85+ years
ActiGraph AM-7164; censored data to approximate pedometer outputs 7 days Adult Graduated Step Index with additional sedentary categories Men
14.1% < 2,500
20.6% 2,500-4,999
24.2% 5,000-7,499
19.3% 7,500-9,999
10.9% 10,000-12,499
10.8% 12,500+
Women
14.1% < 2,500
20.6% 2,500-4,999
24.2% 5,000-7,499
19.3% 7,500-9,999
13.2% 10,000-12,499
10.8% 12,500+
Clemes [84]
UK
2011
44 men
52 women; 18 to 65 years
SW-200 pedometer (New Lifestyles, Inc., Lees Summit, MO) 4 weeks in summer and again in winter 10,000 steps/day Normal weight
Summer 60% ≥ 10,000
Winter 35%≥ 10,000
Overweight
Summer 43%≥ 10,000
Winter 35%≥ 10,000
  1. Adult Graduated Step Index [11]: 1) < 5,000 steps/day ('sedentary'); 2) 5,000-7,499 steps/day ('low active'); 3) 7,500-9,999 steps/day ('somewhat active'); 4) ≥10,000-12,499 steps/day ('active'); and 5) ≥12,500 steps/day ('highly active'). These categories were reinforced in an updated review in 2008 [12] and in 2009 the original 'sedentary' level was segmented into two additional levels: < 2,500 steps/day ('basal activity') and 2,500 to 4,999 steps/day ('limited activity') [3].