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Table 3 Pedometer - based physical activity intervention studies with special populations

From: How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

Reference Sample Intervention duration; study duration and design Instrument Intervention Group
Baseline Steps/day
Intervention Group
Immediately Post-Intervention Steps/day
Delta
Steps/day
Cohen's D
Cancer   
Wilson [98] 2005
USA
Adult breast cancer survivors; 22 intervention participants 8-week intervention;
8-week quasi-experimental
NR 4,791 8,297 3,506 N/A
Pinto [32, 33]
2005, 2009
USA
Adult breast cancer survivors; 43 intervention participants 12-week intervention; 9-month randomized controlled trial Intervention: pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker)
Assessment: accelerometer (Caltrac, Muscle Dynamics, Torrance, CA)
4,471.7 ± 5,196.1 14,571.5 ± 9,489.5 10,100 1.38
Vallance [99]
2007
Canada
Adult breast cancer survivors; 94 print materials, 94 pedometer only, 93 pedometer with print materials, 96 standard recommendation 3-month intervention; 6-month randomized controlled trial Digi-Walker SW-200 PED (New Lifestyles Inc., Lee's Summit, MO) 8,476 ± 3,248 (Pedometer only)
7,993 ± 3,559 (Pedometer with print materials)
8,420 ± 5,226 (Pedometer only)
7,783 ± 3,048 (Pedometer with print materials)
-210 -0.06
Irwin [100]
2008
USA
Adults with early stage breast cancer; 37 intervention participants 6-month intervention; 6-month randomized controlled trial NR 5,083 ± 2,313
(based on n = 37)
6,738 ± 2,958
(based on n = 34)
1,655 0.63
Pinto [34]
2008
USA
Breast cancer survivors; 25 intervention participants 12-week intervention; 24-week quasi-experimental Intervention: pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker)
Assessment: accelerometer (Biotrainer-Pro, Individual Monitoring Systems, Baltimore, MD)
No pre-intervention steps data reported but week one mean steps/day = 515.8 ± 470.8 1,695.4 ± 1,221.3 1,180 1.39
Matthews [35]
2007
USA
Breast cancer survivors; 13 intervention participants 12-week intervention; 12-week randomized comparative trial Intervention: pedometer (Brand NR)
Assessment: Manufacturing Technology Actigraph (MTI, Fort Walton Beach, FL, USA)
7,409.4 ± 2,791.1 8,561.8 ± 2887.3 1,152 0.41
Blaauwbroek [101]
2009
The Netherlands
Adult survivors of childhood cancer; 38 intervention participants 10-week intervention; 36-week quasi-experimental Yamax digiwalker SW-200 7,653 ± 3,272 11,803 ± 3,483 4,150 1.23
Mustian [28]
2009
USA
Mixed cancer type patients receiving radiation; 19 intervention participants 4-week intervention; 3-month randomized controlled trial NR 7,222 ± 2,691 11,200 ± 5,851 3,978 0.93
Swenson [30]
2010
USA
Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy; 36 intervention participants (subsample of larger randomized trial) 12- month intervention; 12-month quasi-experimental study conducted within a larger randomized trial Walk 4 Life LS2500 (Walk 4 Life, Inc.) No pre-intervention steps data reported but week one mean steps/day = 7,453 ± 2,519 9,429 ± 3,488 1,976 0.66
      Unweighted mean 2,743 0.73
      Weighted mean 2,139 0.51
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)   
De Blok [102]
2006
The Netherlands
Adults with COPD; 8 intervention participants 9-week intervention; 9 week randomized controlled trial Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 (Tokyo, Japan) 2,140 3,927 1,787 N/A
Hopses [103]
2009
The Netherlands
Adults with COPD; 18 intervention participants 12-week intervention; 12-week randomized controlled trial Digiwalker SW-2000 (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) 7,087 ± 4,058 7,872 ± 3,962 785 0.20
Nguyen [36]
2009
USA
Adults with COPD; 8 self-monitored (SM), 9 coached (C) 6-month intervention; 6-month randomized comparative trial of cell-phone supported pedometer programs Intervention: Omron HJ-112 (Omron Healthcare, Bannockburn, IL, USA)
Assessment: Stepwatch 3 Activity Monitor (SAM; OrthoCare Innovations, Washington, DC, USA)
SM:
5,229 ± 3,021*
C:
6,692 ± 3,021*
SM:
5,838 ± 3,100*
C:
5,675 ± 3,021*
SM:
609
C:
-1,017
SM: 0.02
C:
-0.34
      Unweighted mean 541 0.02
      Weighted mean 562 0.06
Coronary heart disease and related disorders   
VanWormer [104]
2004
USA
Adults with coronary artery disease; 22 intervention participants 17-week intervention; 17-week quasi-experimental NR 6,520.10 ± 2,926.99 8,210.24 ± 2,534.91 1,690 0.62
Izawa
[105] 2005
Japan
Adult myocardial infarction patients completing 6 months of cardiac rehabilitation;
24 intervention participants
6-month intervention; 12-month randomized controlled trial Kenz Lifecorder, (Suzuken, Nagoya, Japan) 6,564.9 ± 1,114.6 10,458.7 ± 3,310.1 3,894 1.76
      Unweighted mean 2,792 1.29
      Weighted mean 2,840 1.21
Diabetes and related disorders   
Tudor-Locke [29]
2001
Canada
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 9 intervention participants 4-week intervention; 4-week quasi-experimental Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 6,342 ± 2,244 10,115 ± 3,407 3,773 1.34
Tudor-Locke [106]
2004
Canada
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 24 intervention participants 16-week intervention; 24-week randomized controlled trial Yamax SW-200, (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) 5,754 ± 2,457 9,123 ± 4,539 3,369 0.96
Araiza [107]
2006
USA
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 15 intervention participants 6-week intervention; 6-week; randomized controlled trial Yamax Digiwalker SW-701 (New Lifestyles, Kansas City, MI) 7,220 ± 2792 10,410 ± 4,162 3,190 0.92
Engel [108]
2006
Australia
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 30 coaching intervention, 24 pedometer intervention 6-month intervention; 6-month randomized comparative trial Yamax Digi-Walker-700 NR averaged 7,296 ± 2,066 during intervention N/A N/A
Richardson [109]
2007
USA
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 17 lifestyle goals, 13 structured goals 6-week intervention;
6-week comparative trial of two types of pedometer goal-setting strategies
Omron HJ-720IT (beta test version) Lifestyles goals:
4,157 ± 1,737
Structured goals:
6,279 ± 3,306
Lifestyles goals:
5,171 ± 1,769
Structured goals:
6,868 ± 3,751
Lifestyles goals:
1,014
Structured goals:
589
Lifestyles goals:
0.58
Structured goals:
0.17
Bjorgaas [110]
2008
Norway
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 19 intervention participants 6-month intervention;
6-month randomized controlled trial
Yamax Dig-Walker ML AW-320, Yamax Corp, Tokyo, Japan 7,628 ± 3,715 8,022 ± 3,368 394 0.11
LeMaster [31]
2008
USA
Adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy; 41 intervention participants 12-month intervention;
12-month randomized controlled trial
Intervention: Accusplit Eagle 170 (Pleasanton, CA)
Assessment: Stepwatch 3 (Orthocare Innovations, Washington, DC)
3,335 ± 1,575* 3,183 ± 1,537* -152 -0.10
Cheong [111]
2009
Canada
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 19 pedometer-only intervention (P); 19 pedometer and low glycemic index food intake intervention (PGI) 16-week intervention; 16-week randomized comparative trial NR P:
5,721 ± 2,232*
PGI:
5,251 ± 1,944*
P:
8,527 ± 3,374*
PGI:
9,381 ± 5,187*
P:
2,806
PGI:
4,130
P:
1.00
PGI:
1.16
Johnson [112]
2009
Canada
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 21 Enhanced program, 17 Basic program 12-week randomized comparative evaluation of two types of pedometer programs Digi-Walker SW-200, (Yamax, Kyoto, Japan) All participants:
8,948 ± 3,288
All participants:
10,485 ± 4,264**
1,685 0.44
Kirk [113]
2009
U.K.
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 42 in-person intervention (IP),
40 written form intervention (WF)
6-month intervention; 12-month randomized controlled trial ActiGraph GT1M (ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA) IP:
6,600 ± 2,700
WF:
5,500 ± 2,300
IP:
6,500 ± 2,300
WF:
5,300 ± 2,300
IP:
-100
WF:
-200
IP:
-0.04
WF:
-0.09
Newton [114]
2009
New Zealand
Adolescents with type 1 diabetes; 34 intervention participants 12-week intervention; 12-week randomized controlled trial NR Median 11,242 Median 10,159 N/A N/A
Tudor-Locke [115]
2009
Canada
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 157 professional-led (PRO), 63 peer-led (PEER) participants 16-week intervention; 16-week quasi-experimental comparison of program delivery Yamax SW-200, (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) PRO: 3,980 ± 2,189
PEER:
4,396 ± 2,045
PRO:
7,976 ± 4,118
PEER:
8,612 ± 3,202
PRO:
3,996
PEER:
4,216
PRO:
1.27
PEER:
1.61
Vincent [116]
2009
USA
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 9 intervention participants 8-week intervention; 8-week randomized controlled trial NR 4,175 7,238 3,063 N/A
De Greef [72]
2010
Belgium
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 20 intervention participants 12-week intervention, 12-week randomized controlled trial Yamax DigiWalker SW200 7,099 ± 4,208 8,024 ± 5,331 925 0.19
Diedrich [117]
2010
USA
Adults with type 2 diabetes; 11 intervention participants 3-month intervention; 3-month quasi-experiment Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 4,145 ± 2,929*** 6,486 ± 2,766*** 2,341 0.82
      Unweighted mean 2,061 0.65
      Weighted mean 2,405 0.78
Joint or muscle disorders   
Talbot [118]
2003
USA
Adults with knee osteoarthritis; 17 walking plus education program 12-week intervention; 12-week randomized comparative trial of a self-management education program with and without walking program New Lifestyles Digi-walker SW-200 (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) 3,519 ± 2,603 4,337 ± 2,903 818 0.30
Kilmer [119]
2005
USA
Adults with neuromuscular disease; 20 intervention participants 6-month intervention; 6-month quasi-experimental home-based activity and dietary intervention NR 4,600 (from figure) 5,900 (from figure) N/A N/A
Fontaine [120]
2007
USA
Adults with fibromyalgia syndrome; 14 intervention particpants 12-week intervention; 12-week randomized comparative trial Accusplit Eagle Activity Pedometer (San Jose, CA) 2,337 ± 1,598* 3,970 ± 2,238* 1,633 0.85
      Unweighted mean 1,226 0.57
      Weighted mean 1,186 0.55
  1. Note: Values are means ± SD unless otherwise stated, personal communication with Fontaine [120] clarified that what was reported in the published manuscript was actually SE; COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; *SD calculated from reported SE; * post-test data obtained directly from corresponding author; ***reported as steps/week in original article, divided by 7 days here.