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Table 3 Weighted BMI Parameter Estimates (t ratios in parentheses)

From: Time use choices and healthy body weight: A multivariate analysis of data from the American Time use Survey

  Males Females
Independent Variables OLS Model Instrumental Variables Model Reduced Form Modela OLS Model Instrumental Variables Model Reduced Form Modela
Intercept 30.23 (54.86)** 33.22 (16.84)** 38.30 (21.38)** 29.98 (46.18)** 30.00 (11.74)** 35.40 (18.02)**
Primary Eating Time a -.03 (-2.10)** -0.74 (-2.42)**   -.03 (-2.30)** -0.66 (-2.46)**  
Secondary Eating Time a -.02 (-3.56)** -0.96 (-3.06)**   -.03 (-4.40)** -0.37 (-2.28)*  
Secondary Drinking Time a .01 (2.49)** 2.14 (1.87)*   .01 (2.32)** 0.36 (1.81)*  
Food Preparation Time a -.05 (-3.07)** 0.04 (.35)   -.03 (-2.57)** -0.17 (-2.75)**  
Physically Active Time a -.01 (-2.11)** 0.02 (.58)   -.02 (-3.88)** 0.37 (.49)  
Sleep Time a -.02 (-4.36)** -0.14 (-2.48)**   -.00 (0.40) -0.04 (-.47)  
Television/Video Time a .01 (3.50)** 0.18 (4.23)**   .03 (5.30)** 0.19 (2.05)**  
Age .01 (1.57) 0.00 (.10) .09 (5.39)** .03 (5.10)** 0.05 (2.80)** .07 (4.36)**
Black .18 (.92) -1.56 (-2.38)** .01 (.06) 2.42 (12.17)** 1.24 (3.45)* 2.35 (11.57)**
Hispanic .09 (.51) 0.37 (1.80)* -.18 (-.94) .76 (3.65)** 1.52 (5.77)** .76 (3.52)**
Other -1.04 (-3.80)** -0.67 (-2.19)** -.72 (-2.57)** -.64 (-2.30)** 0.69 (1.84)* -.51 (-1.77)*
Married/Cohabitating .69 (4.87)** 1.14 (4.54)** .22 (1.18) -.45 (-3.10)** 0.27 (1.04) -.74 (-4.57)**
Education -.17 (-6.89)** 0.18 (2.06)** -.06 (-1.21) -.34 (-12.22)** -0.09 (-1.18) -.23 (-4.54)**
Employed .47 (2.72)** 1.25 (4.72)** .44 (2.62)** .23 (1.52) 0.35 (.64) .16 (1.07)
Poor Health 2.21 (12.73)** 1.39 (4.83)** 2.27 (13.10)** 3.04 (16.03)** 2.31 (8.60)** 3.15 (16.61)**
Occupation with METs > 3.3 -.54 (-3.08)** -0.43 (-.69) -.75 (-4.88)** --- --- ---
Number of Kids < Age 6 -.07 (-.72) 0.25 (1.92)* -.24 (-2.24)** -.04 (-.36) 0.34 (1.87)* -.08 (-.70)
Number of Kids Age 6-17 .04 (.69) 0.04 (.53) .07 (1.10) .00 (.05) 0.15 (1.00) .02 (.33)
Weekend    .06 (.52)    -.04 (-.27)
Primary Meal Preparer    -.07 (-.46)    -.71 (-3.73)**
Primary Grocery Shopper    .19 (1.35)    .22 (.94)
Summer    .24 (1.82)*    .10 (.69)
ATUS07    .05 (.45)    -.00 (-.00)
Grocery Price Index    -.03 (-4.69)**    -.03 (-4.50)**
Hourly Opportunity Cost of Time    -.06 (-2.89)**    -.07 (-2.75)**
Ln(Non-Wage Income)    -1.34 (-4.68)**    -.55 (-1.75)**
Adjusted R 2 .05 .05 .05 .11 .11 .11
F-Statistic 23.47** 21.92** 22.19** 67.53** 65.34** 62.22**
  1. *p < .10, **p < .05
  2. a Time use is measured in 10 minute increments.