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Table 1 Demographics of sample and demographics by breastfeeding group

From: Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

Demographics All Participants n = 109 DIRECT BF
n = 40
BTL-HM
n = 47
BTL-FORM
n = 22
Childs Age, mean (SD) 4.1 (1.0) 4.0 (1.0) 4.0 (1.0) 4.3 (1.1)
Weeks of Any Human Milk Use, mean (SD)* 37.9 (42.8) 73.2 (47.3) 25.3 (22.0) 0.1 (1.6)
Weeks of Exclusive Human Milk Use, mean (SD)* 12.6 (10.5) 22.0 (5.5) 10.3 (8.9) 0 (-)
Mom Overweight or Obese, n (%) 46 (42.2%) 16 (40%) 17 (37.8%) 13 (61.9%)
Child Weight Status: Overweight or Obese, n (%) 26 (23.8%) 8 (20.0%) 12 (29.3%) 7 (31.8%)
Child Gender     
   Male, n (%) 53 (48.6%) 22 (55.0%) 19 (40.4%) 12 (54.5%)
   Female, n (%) 56 (51.4%) 18 (45.0%) 28 (59.6%) 10 (45.5%)
Mom Race Ethnicity     
   White, non-Hispanic, n (%) 92 (84.4%) 37 (92.5%) 36 (76.6%) 19 (86.4%)
   Black, African American, n (%) 11 (10.1%) 1 (2.5%) 7 (14.9%) 3 (13.6%)
   Other, n (%) 6 (5.5%) 2 (5.0%) 4 (8.5%) 0 (0%)
Child Race Ethnicity     
   White, non-Hispanic, n (%) 93(85.3%) 37 (92.5%) 37 (78.7%) 19 (86.4%)
   Black, African American, n (%) 9 (8.3%) 0 (0%) 6 (12.8%) 3 (13.6%)
   Other, n (%) 7 (6.4%) 3 (7.5%) 4 (8.5%) 0 (0%)
Parity     
   Multiparous at Interview†, n (%) 93 (92.1%) 36 (94.7%) 38 (92.7%) 19 (86.4%)
   Primiparous at Child's Birth, n (%) 47 (43.5%) 18 (45.0%) 22 (47.8%) 7 (31.8%)
Household Income Level*     
   Unknown, n (%) 5 (4.6%) 2 (5.2%) 3 (6.4%) 0 (0%)
   < $50,000, n (%) 3 (2.8%) 1 (2.6%) 2 (4.2%) 0 (0%)
   $50,000-$74,999, n (%) 10 (10.4%) 4 (10.5%) 3 (6.4%) 4 (18.2%)
   $75,000-$99,999, n (%) 22 (20.8%) 2 (5.3%) 14 (29.8%) 6 (27.3%)
   ≥$100,000, n (%) 69 (66%) 31 (81.6%) 25 (53.2%) 12 (54.5%)
Maternal Education Level     
   High School diploma or less, n (%) 16 (14.7%) 2 (5%) 10 (21.7%) 4 (18.2%)
   College Graduate or Beyond, n (%) 93 (85.3%) 38 (95%) 37 (78.7%) 18 (81.8%)
  1. †Some missing participant data- percentages based on complete data only.
  2. *p ≤ 0.05
  3. **p ≤ 0.10
  4. Direct BF = direct breastfeeding group. BTL-HM = Bottle-fed Human Milk group. BTL-FORM = Bottle-fed Formula group.