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Table 2 Summary of characteristics of included studies

From: Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

       nanalyzed     
First Author Year Country Grade Age Range Mean age Total Boys Girls Units of sedentary behaviour Exposure Outcome
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS            
Epstein LH [265] 1995 US   8-12 10.1 61    hour week TV BC
Epstein LH [50] 2008 US   4-7 6 70 37 33 hour day TV BC
Goldfield GS [264] 2006 Canada   8-12 10.4 30 13 17 min day TV BC
Gortmaker SL [57] 1995 US    11.7 1295 668 627 hour day TV BC
Hughes AR [262] 1991 Scotland   5-11 8.8 134 59 74 hour day SB BC
Robinson TN [58] 1999 US     192    hour week TV, GAMES BC
Robinson TN [221] 2003 US   8-10 9.5 61 0 61 hour week TV BC, SE
Shelton D [263] 2007 Australia   3-10 7.5 43 20 23 hour day TV BC
INTERVENTION STUDIES           
Epstein LH [56] 2000 US   8-12 10.5 76 24 52 hour month SB, ST BC, FIT
Epstein LH [59] 2004 US   8-12 9.8 60 23 39 times week TV BC
Epstein LH [60] 2005 US   8-16   58 28 30 hour day SB, TV BC
Gentile DA [61] 2009 US    9.6 1323 685 674 hour day ST BC
Goldfield GS [52] 2007 Canada   8-12 10.4 30 13 17 hour day SB BC, SE
Harrison M [62] 2003 Ireland    10.2 312 177 135 min day TV, ST BC
Ochoa MC [53] 2007 Spain   6-18 11.6 370 196 174 hour week TV BC
Salmon J [51] 2008 Australia   1011 10.8 311 152 159 hour day TV BC
Simon C [54] 2002 France    11.7 954 468 486 hour day TV, COMP BC, SE
Tanasescu M [55] 2000 Puerto Rico 7-10 9.2 53 22 31 hour day TV BC
LONGITUDINAL STUDIES         hour   
Aires L [83] 2010 Portugal 11-19   345 147 198 hour day SCREEN BC, FIT
Berkey CS [76] 2003 US   10-15   11887 5120 6767 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Bhargava A [77] 2008 US     7635    min day TV BC
Blair NJ [68] 2007 England    5.5 591 287 304 hour day SB, TV BC
Borradaile KE [86] 2008 US    11.2 1092 501 591 hour week TV BC
Burke V [71] 2006 Australia    7.6/10.8 1569 630 648 hour week SCREEN BC
Chen JL [78] 2007 Chinese   7-8 7.52 307 147 160 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Danner FW [66] 2008 US     7334 3674 3660 hour day TV BC
Dasgupta K [215] 2006 Canada    12.7/15.1/17.0 662 319 343 hour week SB, TV MS
Day RS [85] 2009 US   8-14   556 277 279 min day TV BC
Dietz WH [181] 1985 US   12-17   2153    hour day TV BC
Elgar FJ [79] 2005 Wales    11.7 654 293 361 hour week TV BC
Elgar FJ [79] 2005 Wales    15.3 392 181 211 hour week TV BC
Ennemoser M [237] 2007 German   6-8   332    min day TV SE, AA
Fulton JE [84] 2009 US   10-18   472 245 227 min day TV BC
Gable S [70] 2007 US     8000    hour day TV BC
Hancox RJ [88] 2004 New Zealand 5-15   1013    hour day TV BC, MS
Hancox RJ [72] 2006 New Zealand 5-15   603 372 339 hour day SCREEN BC
Henderson VR [67] 2007 US   11-19   2379 0 2379 hour day TV, SCREEN BC
Hesketh K [80] 1997 Australia   5-10 7.6 1278 630 648 hour day SCREEN BC
Hesketh K [80] 1997 Australia   8-13 10.7 1278 630 648 hour day SCREEN BC
Hesketh K [64] 2009 Australia   5-10 7.7 1943 972 971 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Hesketh K [64] 2009 Australia   8-13   1569 816 753 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Jackson LA [223] 2009 US    12 500 235 265 hour day COMP, SCREEP SE
Jago R [82] 2005 US   5-6 6.5 138 65 73 min hr SB, TV BC
Janz KF [73] 2005 US    5.6/8.6 378 176 202 hour day SCREEN BC
Johnson JG [41] 2007 US        hour day TV AA
Kaur H [75] 2003 US   12-17   2223 1149 1074 hour day TV BC
Lajunen HR [128] 2007 Finland   15-19   5184    hour   SB BC
Lonner W [238] 1985 US   9-19 14.2 367    hour day TV AA
Maffeis C [89] 1998 Italy    8.7 298 148 150 min day SCREEN BC
Mistry K [229] 2007 US        hour day TV PRO
Mitchell JA [49] 2009 UK   11-12 11.8 5434 2590 2844 hour day SB BC, FIT
Must A [87] 2007 US   10-17   156 0 156 hour day SB, SCREEN BC
O'Brien M [69] 2007 US   2-12   653    hour week TV BC
Parsons TJ [74] 2005 England/Scotland/Wales 11/16 17733    hour day TV BC
Purslow LR [63] 2008 England   8-9   345 176 169 min day SB BC
Timperio A [65] 2008 Australia   10-12   344 152 192 times week SB, SCREEN BC
Treuth MS [29] 2007 US    11.9 984 0 984 min day SB BC
Treuth MS [27] 2009 US    13.9 984 0 984 min day SB BC
Wosje,K.S [205] 2009 US   6.75-7.25   214    hour day SCREEN FIT
CROSS SECTIONAL STUDIES           
Al SH [192] 2009 International   12-18   17715 8503 9212 hour day TV BC
Albarwani S [207] 2009 Oman   15-16   529 245 284 hour week TV, COMP FIT
Alves JG [191] 2009 Brazil   7-10   733 407 326 hour day TV BC
Aman J [218] 2009 Sweden   11-18 14.5 2093 1016 991 hour week TV, COMP MS
Andersen LF [155] 2005 Norway   8-14   1432 702 730 hour day TV BC
Andersen RE [142] 1998 US   8-16   4063 1985 2071 hour day TV BC
Anderson SE [103] 2008 US   4-12 8 2964 1509 1455 hour day TV BC
Armstrong CA [213] 1998 US    9.28 588 304 284 hour day TV FIT
Asante PA [183] 2009 US   3-13 8.5 324 182 142 hour day SCREEN BC
Aucote HM [163] 2009 Australia 5-6   11.09 393 198 195 hour week TV, GAMES BC
Barlow SE [151] 2007 US   6-17 12.1 52845    hour day TV BC
Basaldua N [109] 2008 Mexico   6-12 8.9 551 278 273 hour day TV BC
Bellisle F [123] 2007 France   9-11   1000 500 500 hour day TV BC
Berkey CS [90] 2000 US    Sep-14 10769 4620 6149 hour day TV BC
Beyerlein A [105] 2008 Germany   4.5-7.3   4967 2585 2382 hour day TV BC
Boone JE [164] 2007 US    15.9 9155 4879 4276 hour week SCREEN BC
Boone-Heinonen J [104] 2008 US   11-21   9251    hour   SB BC
Boutelle KN [130] 2007 US   16-18   1726 890 836 hour day TV BC
Brodersen NH [235] 2005 England    11.8 4320 2578 1742 hour week SB SE, PRO
Bukara-Radujkovic G [96] 2009 Bosnia   11-12 11.5 1204 578 626 hour day TV, COMP BC
Butte NF [119] 2007 US   6-17 10.8 897 441 456 hour day SCREEN BC
Caldas S [245] 1999 US   4-19   34542    hour day TV AA
Carvalhal MM [131] 2007 Portugal 10-11    3365 1755 1610 hour day TV, COMP BC
Chaput J [154] 2006 Canada   5-10 6.6 422 211 211 hour day SCREEN BC
Chen MY [78] 2007 Taiwan   13-18 15.03 660 351 309 hour day TV, COMP BC, SE, PRO
Chowhan J [232] 2007 Canada   12-15   2666    hour day TV PRO
Christoforidis A [95] 2009 Greece   4-18 11.41 1549 735 814 hour day SCREEN BC, FIT
Collins AE [149] 2008 Indonesia 12-15   1758 815 916 hour day TV, COMP BC
Colwell J [200] 2003 Japan   12-13   305 159 146 hour day SCREEN BC, PRO
Cooper H [247] 1999 US 7-11    424 225 199 hour day TV AA
Crespo CJ [177] 2001 US   8-16   4069 1994 2075 hour day TV BC
Da CR [157] 2003 Brazil   7-10   446 107 107 hour day TV BC
Dasgupta K [215] 2007 Canada   13-17   1267    hour week SCREEN MS
Delva J [125] 2007 US     11265 5274 5991 hour week TV BC
Dietz WH [181] 1985 US   12-17   6671    hour day TV AA
Dietz WH [181] 1985 US   6-11   6965    hour day TV BC, AA
Dollman J [211] 2006 Australia 6 10-11   843 439 404 min Day TV FIT
Dumais SA [255] 2009 US   10-12   15850    hour   TV AA
Dominick JR [225] 1984 US 10, 11 14-18   250 110 140 hour Day TV, GAME SE, PRO
Eisenmann JC [175] 2002 US   14-18   15143    hour day TV BC
Eisenmann JC [113] 2008 US'    16.2 12464 6080 6384 hour day TV BC
Ekelund U [134] 2006 Europe   9-16   1921 911 1010 hour day TV BC, MS
Fetler M [249] 1984 US 6    10603    hour day SCREEN AA
Forshee RA [201] 2004 US   12-16 14 2216 1075 1141 hour day TV BC
Forshee RA [188] 2009 US   5-18   1459 734 725 hour week SCREEN BC
Gaddy GD [257] 1986 US     5074    hour day TV AA
Giammattei J [140] 2003 US   11-14 12.6 385 186 199 hour day TV BC
Gibson S [156] 2004 England   7-18   1294 655 639 min day TV BC
Gomez LF [150] 2007 Colombia   5-12   11137 5539 5598 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Gordon-Larsen P [176] 2002 US   11-19 15.9 12759 6290 6496 hour week TV, GAMES BC
Gortmaker SL [143] 1996 US   10-15 11.5 746 388 358 hour day TV BC
Gortmaker SL [57] 1999 US   6-11   1745    min week TV SE, AA
Gortmaker SL [57] 1999 US   12-17   1745    min week TV SE, AA
Graf C [167] 2004 Germany    6.8 344 177 167 hour day TV, COMP BC
Grusser SM [40] 2005 Germany 6   11.83 323 175 148 hour day TV AA
Hardy LL [133] 2006 Australia   11-15   2750 1446 1304 hour day SCREEN FIT
Hernandez B [178] 1999 Mexico   9-16   461 244 217 hour day TV BC
Hirschler V [144] 2009 Argentina 7-11 8.9 330 168 162 hour day TV BC
Holder MD [222] 2009 Canada   8-12   375 252 262 hour day SCREEN SE
Hume C [190] 2009 Netherlands   13 580 277 303 hour day SCREEN BC
Islam-Zwart K [195] 2008 US     480 198 282 hour day TV BC
Jackson LA [223] 2009 US    12.18 515 259 256 hour day GAMES, COMP AA
Janssen I [166] 2004 Canada   11-16   5890 2812 3078 hour day TV, COMP BC
Janz K [174] 2002 US   4-6 5.3 462 216 246 hour day TV BC
Jaruratanasirikul S [241] 2009 Thailand 7-12   15.9 1492 562 929 hour   GAMES AA
Johnson CC [41] 2007 US    12 1397 0 1397 hour day SB SE
Katzmarzyk PT [197] 1998 Canada   9-18   784 423 361 min day TV BC, FIT
Katzmarzyk PT [184] 1998 Canada     640 356 284 hour day TV BC, FIT
Kautiainen S [135] 2005 Finland   14-18   6515 2916 3599 hour day SCREEN BC
Keith TZ [256] 1986 US high school seniors   28051    hour day TV AA
Klein-Platat C [165] 2005 France    12 2714 1357 1357 hour week SB BC
Kosti RI [196] 2007 Greece   12-17   2008 1021 987 hour day TV BC
Kristjansson AL [243] 2009 Iceland   14-15   5810 2807 3004 hour day TV AA
Kuntsche E [230] 2006 International 11-15   31177    hour day TV PRO
Kuriyan R [117] 2007 India   6-16   598 324 274 hour day TV BC
Lagiou A [160] 2008 Greece   10-12   633 316 317 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Lajous M [92] 2009 Mexico   11-18 13.9 9132 3519 5613 hour day TV BC
Lajunen HR [128] 2007 Finland    17.6 4098 1981 2117 hour week COMP BC
Lasserre AM [116] 2007 Switzerland 10.1-14.9 12.3 5207 2621 2586 hour day TV BC
Laurson KR [107] 2008 US   7-12   709 318 391 hour week SCREEN BC
Lazarou C [217] 2009 Cyprus    11.7 622 306 316 hour day TV MS
Leatherdale ST [11] 2008 Canada   14-19   25416 12806 12610 hour day TV BC, PRO
Lioret S [127] 2007 France   3-14   1016 528 488 hour day SB, TV, COMP BC
Lobelo F [208] 2009 US   14-18   5210 0 5210 hour day SCREEN FIT
Lowry R [173] 2002 US     15349 7445 7828 hour day TV BC
Lutfiyya MN [118] 2007 US   5-17   7972    hour day TV BC
Maffeis C [114] 2008 Italy   8-10 9.3 1837 924 913 hour day TV BC
Mark AE [220] 2008 US   12-19 15.9 1803 1005 798 hour day TV BC, MS
McMurray RG [187] 2000 US   10-16 12.7 2389 1149 1240 hour day TV BC
Mihas C [193] 2009 Greece   12-17 14.4 2008 1021 987 hour day SCREEN BC
Mikolajczyk RT [194] 2008 Germany   11-17 13.5 4878 2433 2445 hour low/high SB BC
Moraes SA [135] 2006 Mexico   6-14 8.0/11.3 662 343 339 hour week   
Morgenstern M [94] 2009 Germany/US 10-17 12.8 4810 2294 2516 hour day SCREEN BC
Morgenstern M [94] 2009 Germany/US 12-16 14 4473 2239 2234 hour day SCREEN BC
Mota J [199] 2006 Portugal   14.6 450 220 230 hour day TV, COMP BC
Muller MJ [179] 1999 Germany   5-7   1468 739 729 hour day TV BC
Nagel G [193] 2009 Germany   6-9 7.57 1079   498 hour day TV, GAMES BC
nastassea-Vlachou K [240] 1996 Greece   6-13   4690 2279 2411 hour day TV AA
Nawal LM [148] 1998 US   5-18   62976    hour day TV, COMP BC
Nelson MC [233] 2006 US   7-12   11957 5979 5978 hour day SCREEN PRO
Neumark-Sztainer D [224] 2004 US   11-18 14.9 4746 2382 2364 hour week TV SE, PRO
Nogueira JA [45] 2009 Brazil   8.3-16.8 13 326 204 122 hour day SB BC
Obarzanek E [180] 1994 US   9-10 10.1 2379 0 2379 hour week TV BC
Ohannessian CM [226] 2009 US   14-16 14.99 328 138 190 hour day SCREEN SE, PRO, AA
Ortega FB [122] 2007 Spain   13-18.5 15.4 2859 1357 1502 hour day SB BC
Overby NC [219] 2009 Norway   6-19   723 375 348 min day TV  
Ozmert E [42] 2002 Turkey     689 343 346 hour day TV PRO, AA
Padez C [99] 2009 Portugal   7-9   3390 1696 1694 hour day TV BC
Page RM [234] 2001 Philippine   15.1 3307 1267 1819 hour week TV PRO
Pate RR [210] 2006 US   12-19 15.4 3287 1686 1601 hour day TV FIT
Patrick K [169] 2004 US   11-15 12.7 878 407 471 min day TV BC
Pratt C [101] 2008 US    12 1458 223 1235 hour day SB BC
Purath J [185] 1995 US 3-5    365 189 176 hour day TV BC, MS
Ramos E [126] 2007 Portugal 13   2161 1045 1116 min week SB, TV, COMP BC
Rapp K [138] 2005 Germany    6.2 2140 1015 1125 hour day TV BC
Ridley-Johnson R [252] 1983 US 5-8    290    hour day TV AA
Roberts DF [250] 1984 US     539    hour week TV AA
Robinson TN [58] 1999 US    12.4 971 0 971 hour day TV BC
Ruangdaraganon N [141] 2002 Thailand   6-12 9.4 4197 2126 2035 hour day TV BC
Russ SA [147] 2009 US   6-17   54863 28153 26710 hour day SCREEN BC, SE
Sakamoto A [236] 1994 Japan 4-6    307 165 142 times week GAMES PRO
Sakamoto A [236] 1994 Japan 4-6    537 287 250 hour week COMP, GAMES PRO
Sakamoto A [236] 1994 Japan 4-5    118 118 0 hour week COMP, GAMES PRO
Salmon J [136] 2006 Australia   5-12   1560 743 817 hour day TV BC
Sardinha LB [48] 2008 Portugal 9-10 9.8 308 161 147 hour day SB MS
Scott LF [254] 1958 US 6-7    407    hour   TV AA
Sharif I [244] 2006 US   10-14   6522 3169 3353 hour day TV, GAMES PRO, AA
Sharif I [260] 2010 US   9-15 12 4508 2209 2299 hour day TV, GAMES AA
Shejwal B [246] 2006 India    16.05 654 368 286 hour day TV AA
Shields M [162] 2006 US/Can   2-17   8661    hour day SB, TV BC
Shin N [239] 2004 US   6-13 9 1203 605 598 min day TV AA
Singh GK [106] 2003 US   10-17   46707 24072 22635 hour day TV BC
Singh GK [106] 2003 US   10-17   46707 24072 22635 hour day TV BC
Skoric MM [258] 2009 Singapore 8-12 10 333 180 153 hour   TV, GAMES AA
Smith BJ [161] 2007 Fiji   11-16   443 200 245 hour day TV BC
Spinks AB [124] 2007 Australia   5-12   518 282 236 min week SB, SCREEN BC
Steffen LM [98] 2009 US   8-11   526 256 270 hour day TV BC
Stettler N [168] 2004 Switzerland   8 872 410 462 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Sugiyama T [47] 2007 US   12-19 15.9 4508 2295 2213 hour day SB MS
Sun Y [91] 2009 Japan   12-13 . 5753 2842 2911 hour day TV BC
Taylor WC [158] 2002 US   6-15 11.1 509 231 278 kcal day SB BC
te Velde SJ [129] 2007 International 9-14 11.4 12538 6256 6282 hour day TV, COMP BC
Thompson AM [189] 2009 Canada 3, 7, 11    1777 795 982 min day TV BC
Toschke AM [112] 2008 Germany   5-6   4884    hour day TV BC
Toschke AM [121] 2007 Germany   5-6   5472    hour day TV BC
Trang NHHD [146] 2009 Australia   11-16   2660 1332 1328 hour day SCREEN BC
Tremblay MS [172] 2003 Canada   7-11   7261    hour day TV BC
Treuth MS [27] 2009 US   11-12 11.9 1579 0 1579 hour day SB BC
Tsai H [153] 2007 Taiwan   11-12   2218 1146 1072 hour day TV BC
Tsai H [145] 2009 Taiwan   11-12   1329 615 672 hour day SB, TV BC
Tucker LA [212] 1987 US    15.7 406 406 0 hour day TV FIT, SE, PRO
Tucker LA [206] 1986 US    15.7 379 379 0 hour day TV FIT
Tucker LA [214] 1996 US   9-10 9.8 262 162 100 hour day TV FIT
Ussher MH [231] 1007 England   13-16   2623    hour day TV PRO, AA
Utter J [171] 2003 US    14.9 4480 2240 2240 hour day SCREEN BC
Utter J [152] 2007 New Zealand 5-14   1743 959 784 hour day TV, COMP BC
Vader AM [97] 2009 US    11, 7 11594 6162 5432 hour day TV BC
van Schie EG [261] 1997 Netherlands 10-14 11.5 346 171 175 hour day SCREEN PRO, AA
van Zutphen M [159] 2007 Australia   4-12 8 1926 939 987 min day TV BC
Vandewater EA [170] 2004 US   1-12 6 2831 1444 1387 hour day SB, SCREEN BC
Vaughan C [198] 2007 Australia   11-18 14 443 189 254 hour day SCREEN BC
Vicente-Rodriguez G [110] 2008 Spain   13-18.5   1960 1012 948 hour day TV, GAMES BC
Violante R [137] 2005 Mexico   6-14   8624 258 4366 hour day TV BC
Wake M [186] 2003 Australia   5-13 9.1 2862 1445 1417 hour week SCREEN BC
Walberg HJ [251] 1984 US 2-6   13 2890 1445 1445 hour day TV AA
Walberg HJ [253] 1982 US    17 2001 1031 970 hour day TV AA
Waller CE [202] 2003 China   6-11 9 880    hour week TV BC
Wang Y [120] 2007 US    11.9 498 218 280 hour day SCREEN BC
Welch WW [248] 1986 Australia 3-4 9 9 1960      TV AA
Wells JC [108] 2008 Brazil   10-12   4452 2193 2258 hour day TV BC, MS
Whitt-Glover MC [24] 2009 US   6-19   749 351 398 min day SB BC
Wiggins J [227] 1987 US 4-12    483 252 231 min day TV SE, AA
Wolf AM [203] 1998 US   11-14   552 0 552 hour day TV BC
Wong SL [100] 2009 Canada    15.5 25060 12806 12254 hour day SB, SCREEN BC
Zabinski MF [132] 2007 US   11-15   878 425 453 hour day SB BC
  1. SB, sedentary behaviour; TV, television viewing; COMP, computer time; GAME, video game playing; SCREEN, composite measure of 2 or more screen activities (i.e. television viewing, computer time, or video game playing); BC, body composition; MS, measures of metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease (e.g. insulin resistance, blood pressure); SE, self-esteem; PRO, pro-social behaviour; AA, academic achievement.