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Table 3 Self-reported occurrence of adverse events 1) during and immediately after physical activity in the intervention (INT) and the usual care group (UC) at the follow-up visits

From: Is intensive counseling in maternity care feasible and effective in promoting physical activity among women at risk for gestational diabetes? Secondary analysis of a cluster randomized NELLI study in Finland

Adverse event 16-18 weeks’ gestation N (%) 22-24 weeks’ gestation N (%) 32-34 weeks’ gestation N (%) 36-37 weeks’ gestation N (%)
  INT UC INT UC INT UC INT UC
  N = 199 N = 117 N = 194 N = 115 N = 188 N = 112 N = 172 N = 108
Nausea 7 (3.5) - 2 (1.0) - 1 (0.5) - 1 (0.6) -
Vaginal bleeding - - - - 1 (0.5) - - 1 (0.9)
Painful contractions - - - 4 (3.5) - 8 (7.1) 1 (0.6) 7 (6.6)
Dizziness 6 (3.0) 3 (2.6) 4 (2.1) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.5) 3 (2.7) 1 (0.6) -
Dyspnea 7 (3.5) 8 (6.8) 3 (1.5) 10 (8.7) 4 (2.1) 14 (12.5) 7 (4.1) 16 (14.8)
Headache 1 (0.5) - 1 (0.5) - - - 2 (1.2) -
Chest pain - - - - - - - -
Profound fatigue or weakness - 1 (0.9) - 4 (3.5) 2 (1.1) 2 (1.8) - 2 (1.9)
Calf pain or swelling - - 2 (1.0) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.9) - 1 (0.9)
Musculoskeletal symptoms 13 (6.5) 5 (4.3) 17 (8.8) 6 (5.2) 25 (13.3) 7 (6.3) 24 (14.0) 7 (6.5)
Painless contractions 4 (2.0) - 10 (5.2) - 29 (15.4) 2 (1.8) 18 (10.5) 2 (1.9)
Cramps 1 (0.5) - 1 (0.5) - 2 (1.1) - - -
Miscellaneous2) 12 (6.0) 8 (7.8) 22 (11.3) 13 (11.4) 23 (12.2) 14 (12.6) 16 (9.3) 14 (13.1)
At least one adverse event 59 (30.1) 23 (20.2) 61 (31.9) 32 (28.8) 87 (46.8) 39 (36.1) 67 (39.2) 38 (36.2)
Group difference 95% CI (p-value)3) 0.89 to 3.88 (0.10) 0.62 to 2.43 (0.56) 0.99 to 2.94 (0.05) 0.74 to 2.16 (0.37)
  1. The spaces with “-“mean zero.
  2. 1) Symptoms classified as warning signs to terminate exercise during pregnancy [3, 4] and other symptoms reported by the participants (musculoskeletal symptoms, painless contractions, cramps and miscellaneous).
  3. 2) N is one case less.
  4. 3) Multilevel analysis (GLLAMM) taking into account the intra-level variation in pairs, municipalities and nurses and adjusting group differences for participants’ age, pre-pregnant body mass index (≤25, >25 kg/m2), smoking status before and/or during pregnancy (no/yes), primiparity (no/yes), education (academic, polytechnic, basic), working fulltime (no/yes) and weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA at baseline.