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Table 4 Constraints on men’s and women’s cycling, of total sample, transport-only cyclists, and recreation-only cyclists a

From: Gender differences in recreational and transport cycling: a cross-sectional mixed-methods comparison of cycling patterns, motivators, and constraints

Constraints Respondents who cycled within the last year (n = 1849)   Respondents who only cycled for transport in the last week (n = 292) Respondents who only cycled for recreation in the last week (n = 783)
  Men Women Gender differences b Men Women Gender differences b Men Women Gender differences b
  % % OR 95%CI % % OR 95%CI % % OR 95%CI
Concerns about cycling in traffic 53.2 67.6 1.6 1.27-2.05 52.6 61.0 1.01 0.53-1.94 59.3 72.3 1.53 1.04-2.52
Aggression from motorists 52.6 86.8 1.54 1.22-1.95 44.9 60.8 1.62 0.86-3.04 52.2 67.0 1.82 1.25-2.66
Rainy or stormy weather 49.5 58.7 1.28 1.02-1.62 43.4 47.2 0.95 0.49-1.82 54.6 59.5 1.11 0.76-1.61
Lack of time 40.8 41.9 1.15 0.90-1.47 20.5 26.9 2.50 1.26-4.96 52.9 45.9 0.78 0.52-1.18
Lack of safe places to park or store my bicycle at places I would want to ride my bicycle to 37.7 40.0 1.03 0.81-1.30 29.3 38.9 1.50 0.78-2.87 40.8 47.3 1.12 0.77-1.63
Inhaling car fumes when cycling on the road 34.4 47.9 1.63 1.29-2.07 34.8 45.9 1.49 0.77-2.87 30.7 41.4 1.66 1.13-2.43
Lack of shower and changing facilities at places I would want to ride my bicycle to 28.3 33.0 1.18 0.92-1.52 23.3 28.1 0.98 0.51-1.90 32.9 41.4 1.44 0.97-2.15
Inability to put my bicycle on public transportation (buses, trains) 27.9 39.1 1.54 1.20-1.96 27.0 40.5 2.49 1.06-5.81 24.3 32.6 1.39 0.94-2.06
Decrease in daylight hours during winter months 25.7 38.9 1.83 1.43-2.34 10.1 22.9 3.08 1.37-6.94 35.2 42.1 1.22 0.84-1.77
Windy weather 19.7 37.3 2.26 1.73-2.96 11.5 22.1 2.09 0.92-4.74 21.7 41.3 2.48 1.67-3.67
Hot or humid weather 17.0 31.3 1.91 1.46-2.51 11.8 23.8 1.62 0.72-3.60 18.0 33.0 1.97 1.28-3.04
Living too far away from places I would want to ride my bike to 16.3 24.2 1.70 1.28-2.26 17.8 19.7 2.30 0.76-6.99 12.9 18.3 1.56 0.99-2.46
Cold weather 14.6 18.9 1.21 0.90-1.64 5.1 5.2 1.04 0.32-3.42 16.6 18.6 0.96 0.62-1.48
Illness, injury or health problems 13.4 16.5 1.23 0.90-1.68 7.4 13.6 2.26 0.94-5.41 10.9 14.1 1.40 0.86-2.30
The presence of hills 8.5 25.7 3.98 2.88-5.49 8.8 22.6 3.97 1.73-9.11 8.2 23.0 3.60 2.11-6.14
Lack of knowledge about local cycling routes 8.2 17.0 2.01 1.41-2.87 3.3 11.4 2.42 0.95-6.19 9.2 15.2 1.73 1.02-2.94
Cost of cycling (bicycles, accessories, clothing, rides) 6.1 4.1 0.54 0.32-0.90 5.3 3.8 0.75 0.20-2.77 5.7 3.3 0.45 0.20-1.03
Lack of fitness 4.5 12.1 3.21 2.12-4.85 3.9 8.2 3.10 1.16-8.29 3.8 9.0 2.51 1.28-4.93
Lack of confidence in bicycle maintenance, such as repairing a puncture 2.2 20.2 10.2 6.43-16.18 1.9 14.6 11.39 3.27-39.58 1.5 16.7 11.59 5.51-24.40
Lack of confidence in my cycling ability or skills 2.2 14.3 5.97 3.85-9.25 0.5 7.3 10.71 1.18-97.44 2.6 13.5 5.23 2.60-10.50
  1. aAll statistics account for clustering within household and adjust for age, education, employment status, household, number of cars in household, SEIFA, residential location, BMI, and years cycled as an adult, b Male is the referent category, Bold: p < 0.05.