Skip to main content

Table 1 Unadjusted means, standard deviations, ranges of lesson proportions (%) / mean differences ( MD ), p values and Cohen’s d values for student activity levels, lesson contexts, and teacher interactions at baseline and follow-up

From: Changes in physical activity levels, lesson context, and teacher interaction during physical education in culturally and linguistically diverse Australian schools

   Category Percentage of lesson (n = 81) Percentage of lesson (n = 51) Change from baseline to follow-up
Baseline (2008)
Follow-up (2009)
M SD Range M SD Range MD* p value** Cohen’s d ***
Student Activity
Lying down 0.2 0.6 0.0 - 4.4 0.2 1.1 0.0 - 8.0 0.0 p = .818 d = 0.00
Sitting 25.5 16.4 0.0 – 67.3 31.7 24.1 0.0 - 100 6.2 p = .503 d = 0.30
Standing 17.5 11.0 1.1 – 45.6 16.3 10.5 0.0 - 43.6 -1.2 p = .563 d = -0.11
Walking 36.1 14.4 5.6 – 74.5 39.1 18.5 0.0 - 84.4 3.0 p = .117 d = 0.18
Very active 20.8 11.1 2.1 – 57.1 12.9 12.7 0.0 - 62.9 -7.9 p = .009 d = -0.66
MVPA^ 56.9 18.7 22.2 – 96.3 52.1 24.1 0.0 – 97.9 -4.8 p = .777 d = -0.22
Lesson Context
Management 30.8 13.2 3.6 – 67.2 22.3 10.7 0.6 – 49.4 -8.5 p < .001 d = -0.71
Knowledge 9.5 8.1 0.0 – 44.4 14.2 24.3 0.0 – 96.8 4.7 p = .242 d = 0.26
Fitness 7.1 11.4 0.0 – 71.7 10.6 18.1 0.0 – 86.3 3.5 p = .191 d = 0.23
Skill practice 6.2 10.9 0.0 – 44.8 5.2 14.6 0.0 – 75.8 -1.0 p = .644 d = -0.08
Game play 43.5 24.2 0.0 – 94.6 46.6 28.0 0.0 – 99.4 3.1 p = .199 d = 0.12
Other (free play) 2.8 5.0 0.0 – 27.2 1.3 3.4 0.0 – 14.6 -1.5 p = .408 d = -0.35
Teacher Interaction
Promotion of PA 30.8 19.4 0.0 – 89.4 10.1 8.2 0.0 – 30.3 -20.7 p < .001 d = -1.39
No promotion of PA 68.9 19.4 10.6 – 100 89.7 8.6 65.6 - 100 20.8 p < .001 d = 1.39
  Baseline (2008) Follow-up (2009)        
Mean of usable PE class time# in minutes (Range) 59 (19–110) 59 (29–88)        
Number of lessons with          
>50% MVPA (%) 49 (60.5) 32 (62.7)        
>25% Skills practice (%) 8 (9.9) 4 (7.8)        
>35% Promotion PA (%) 27 (33.3) 0 (0)        
  1. *Mean Difference based on test of within-subjects contrast; **p value represents statistical significance based on test of within-subjects contrast; *** Cohen’s d = M Follow-up– M Baseline/ SD pooled, ^ MVPA is the sum of the walking and very active categories; # Usable PE class time defined as when 51% of students arrive in the instruction area to when 51% of students depart instruction area.