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Table 4 Bivariate and multivariate (Model 2) relationships of area-level characteristics and active transportation to school (N = 3 997)

From: Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school

Area-level characteristic % Engaged in active transportation Bivariate model Multivariate model 2
RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
School Characteristics
Bicycle storage available in a safe location
  No 68.3 1.00 1.00
  Yes 61.1 0.89 (0.74 - 1.01) 0.94 (0.77 - 1.09)
Has walk/bike to school days and/or walking school bus programs
  No 64.3 1.00 1.00
  Yes 58.8 0.90 (0.77 - 1.02) 0.91 (0.74 - 1.06)
Identification of safe walking/biking routes to school
  No 64.4 1.00 1.00
  Yes 60.1 0.93 (0.80 - 1.05) 0.95 (0.79 - 1.09)
Neighborhood Characteristics
Sidewalk leading to school
  No 57.1 1.00 1.00
  Yes 62.8 1.11 (0.79 - 1.37) 1.10 (0.74 - 1.39)
% of roads with sidewalks
  1 (1.45 - 47.20) 58.1 1.00 1.00
  2 (47.21 - 64.30) 58.3 1.06 (0.87 - 1.23) 1.11 (0.87 - 1.32)
  3 (64.31 - 84.49) 64.2 1.12 (0.93 - 1.27) 1.14 (0.88 - 1.35)
  4 (84.50 – 100) 70.4 1.16 (0.97 - 1.32) 1.03 (0.76 - 1.27)
  P trend   0.071 0.86
Speed limit of school’s road (km/h)
  ≤40 59.5 1.00 1.00
  50 62.3 1.15 (0.92 - 1.34) 1.27 (0.90 - 1.50)
  ≥60 69.6 1.23 (0.94 - 1.43) 1.32 (0.96 - 1.53)
  P trend   0.12 0.13
% of roads with speed limit ≤60 km/h
  1 (<90) 60.9 1.00 1.00
  2 (90 – 93.99) 65.1 1.10 (0.89 - 1.27) 1.06 (0.82 - 1.27)
  3 (94 – 99.99) 60.1 1.06 (0.85 - 1.24) 1.08 (0.84 - 1.29)
  4 (100) 63.8 1.03 (0.83 - 1.21) 1.05 (0.81 - 1.25)
  P trend   0.94 0.78
Total length of roads (km)
  1 (10.7 – 29.2) 55.6 1.00 1.00
  2 (29.3 – 37.0) 60.8 1.10 (0.92 - 1.27) 0.99 (0.72 - 1.25)
  3 (37.1 – 41.7) 60.8 1.16 (0.97 - 1.33) 1.10 (0.79 - 1.37)
  4 (41.71 – 73.7) 73.7 1.32 (1.15 - 1.46) 1.27 (0.94 - 1.52)
  P trend   0.0005 0.070
Street connectivity
  1 (lowest connectivity) 55.8 1.00 1.00
  2 66.0 1.20 (1.02 - 1.36) 1.07 (0.81 - 1.30)
  3 60.7 1.16 (0.97 - 1.32) 0.96 (0.65 - 1.25)
  4 (highest connectivity) 70.2 1.24 (1.06 - 1.39) 0.91 (0.56 - 1.25)
  P trend   0.020 0.45
Litter in neighborhood
  No problem 62.1 1.00 1.00
  Minor problem 61.6 1.03 (0.89 - 1.15) 1.05 (0.88 - 1.19)
  Moderate problem 62.9 0.99 (0.77 - 1.18) 1.11 (0.82 - 1.33)
  Major problem 91.8 1.48 (1.24 - 1.57) 1.48 (1.17 - 1.58)
  P trend   0.13 0.055
Vacant or shabby housing
  No problem 62.7 1.00 1.00
  Minor problem 59.7 0.98 (0.81 - 1.13) 0.91 (0.71 - 1.10)
  Moderate problem 72.4 1.07 (0.81 - 1.28) 0.76 (0.44 - 1.09)
  Major problem 60.7 1.07 (0.59 - 1.40) 0.73 (0.23 - 1.29)
  P trend   0.70 0.11
Neighborhood SES (median family income, $CAD)
  1 (32 984 – 56 979) 66.5 1.00 1.00
  2 (56 980 – 67 400) 66.1 1.01 (0.85 - 1.15) 0.97 (0.75 - 1.16)
  3 (67 400 – 80 300) 60.7 0.94 (0.77 - 1.10) 1.02 (0.80 - 1.19)
  4 (80 301 – 108 010) 58.9 0.88 (0.72 - 1.04) 0.95 (0.69 - 1.16)
  P trend   0.086 0.77
Average temperature (°C)
  1 (−4.45 – 2.75) 62.4 1.00 1.00
  2 (2.76 – 4.40) 58.9 1.00 (0.82 - 1.16) 0.71 (0.34 - 1.13)
  3 (4.41 – 7.40) 59.5 1.00 (0.83 - 1.16) 0.79 (0.30 - 1.30)
  4 (7.41 – 10.60) 68.3 1.04 (0.87 - 1.19) 0.88 (0.27 - 1.42)
  P trend   0.64 0.95
Average annual rain (mm)
  1 (326 – 615) 61.7 1.00 1.00
  2 (616 – 1335) 62.1 1.02 (0.84 - 1.18) 0.93 (0.59 - 1.23)
  3 (1336 – 1700) 66.3 1.01 (0.84 - 1.16) 1.25 (0.79 - 1.50)
  4 (1701 – 3360) 60.6 1.02 (0.85 - 1.18) 1.27 (0.82 - 1.50)
  P trend   0.82 0.33
Average annual snow (cm)
  1 (87 – 200) 68.2 1.00 1.00
  2 (201 – 240) 70.0 1.04 (0.89 - 1.16) 1.10 (0.87 - 1.26)
  3 (241 – 310) 51.7 0.85 (0.69 - 0.99) 0.88 (0.59 - 1.13)
  4 (311 – 690) 61.8 0.94 (0.79 - 1.07) 0.84 (0.46 - 1.17)
  P trend   0.11 0.19
Average annual number of hot days
  1 (0 – 0.63) 56.4 1.00 1.00
  2 (0.64 – 4.65) 63.5 1.13 (0.94 - 1.30) 1.19 (0.84 - 1.46)
  3 (4.66 – 10.50) 67.8 1.12 (0.92 - 1.28) 1.07 (0.70 - 1.39)
  4 (10.51 – 26.00) 65.4 1.14 (0.95 - 1.31) 1.15 (0.74 - 1.46)
  P trend   0.16 0.69
Average annual number of cold days
  1 (0 – 4.5) 63.3 1.00 1.00
  2 (4.6 – 26.0) 60.9 0.99 (0.82 - 1.14) 1.17 (0.75 - 1.42)
  3 (26.1 – 50) 64.9 1.03 (0.86 - 1.18) 1.17 (0.62 - 1.46)
  4 (50.1 – 110.5) 61.5 0.96 (0.78 - 1.13) 1.14 (0.45 - 1.49)
  P trend   0.87 0.69
  1. Model 2 controls for the significant variables by backwards selection from the first model (gender, family structure, family SES, number of cars in household, and perceived residential neighborhood safety).
  2. RR (95% CI) = relative risk (95% confidence interval).