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Table 5 Final multivariate model of the relationships of characteristics of the individual and family, school, and neighborhood with active transportation to school (N = 3 997)

From: Multi-level examination of correlates of active transportation to school among youth living within 1 mile of their school

Characteristic Multivariate model 3
RR (95% CI)
Individual and Family Characteristics (Individual-level)
Gender
  Male 1.00
  Female 0.86 (0.80 - 0.91)
Family structure, living with:
  Both mother and father 1.00
  One parent and one step-parent 1.10 (1.00 - 1.19)
  Single parent 1.07 (0.99 - 1.14)
  Other 1.10 (0.94 - 1.24)
Family SES
  Very well off 1.00
  Well off 1.08 (1.00 - 1.16)
  Average 1.16 (1.08 - 1.24)
  Not very well off 1.14 (1.01 - 1.26)
  Not at all well off 1.00 (0.80 - 1.19)
  P trend 0.0041
Number of cars in household
  0 1.00
  1 0.94 (0.82 - 1.04)
  2+ 0.87 (0.74 - 0.97)
  P trend 0.0003
Residential neighborhood is safe for children
  Strongly agree 1.00
  Agree 1.00 (0.94 - 1.07)
  Neither agree nor disagree 0.95 (0.86 - 1.03)
  Disagree 0.83 (0.70 - 0.95)
  Strongly disagree 0.95 (0.76 - 1.11)
  P trend 0.019
School Characteristics (Area-Level)
Has walk/bike to school days and/or walking school bus programs
  No 1.00
  Yes 0.89 (0.74 - 1.03)
Neighborhood Characteristics (Area-Level)
% of roads with sidewalks
  1 (1.45 - 47.20) 1.00
  2 (47.21 - 64.30) 1.11 (0.90 - 1.30)
  3 (64.31 - 84.49) 1.17 (0.96 - 1.34)
  4 (84.50 – 100) 1.09 (0.87 - 1.28)
  P trend 0.35
Speed limit of school’s road (km/h)
  ≤40 1.00
  50 1.22 (0.92 - 1.43)
  ≥60 1.26 (0.96 - 1.47)
  P trend 0.13
Total length of roads (km)
  1 (10.7 – 29.2) 1.00
  2 (29.3 – 37.0) 1.00 (0.76 - 1.22)
  3 (37.1 – 41.7) 1.08 (0.85 - 1.29)
  4 (41.71 – 73.7) 1.23 (1.00 - 1.42)
  P trend 0.031
Litter in neighborhood
  No problem 1.00
  Minor problem 1.05 (0.89 - 1.18)
  Moderate problem 1.09 (0.83 - 1.29)
  Major problem 1.47 (1.16 - 1.57)
  P trend 0.061
Vacant or shabby housing
  No problem 1.00
  Minor problem 0.95 (0.77 - 1.11)
  Moderate problem 0.83 (0.52 - 1.13)
  Major problem 0.76 (0.29 - 1.26)
  P trend 0.19
Average temperature (°C)
  1 (−4.45 – 2.75) 1.00
  2 (2.76 – 4.40) 0.77 (0.54 - 1.00)
  3 (4.41 – 7.40) 0.76 (0.46 - 1.08)
  4 (7.41 – 10.60) 0.87 (0.53 - 1.19)
  P trend 0.71
Average annual rain (mm)
  1 (326 – 615) 1.00
  2 (616 – 1335) 0.94 (0.68 - 1.18)
  3 (1336 – 1700) 1.16 (0.76 - 1.42)
  4 (1701 – 3360) 1.25 (0.91 - 1.45)
  P trend 0.20
Average number of hot days
  1 (0 – 0.63) 1.00
  2 (0.64 – 4.65) 1.24 (0.95 - 1.46)
  3 (4.66 – 10.50) 1.18 (0.90 - 1.41)
  4 (10.51 – 26.00) 1.33 (1.05 - 1.53)
  P trend 0.057
  1. RR (95% CI) = relative risk (95% confidence interval).