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Table 5 Adjusted* Odds Ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals from Models that Include Both Perceived Safety and Police-Recorded Crimes with Physical Activity: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

From: Associations of adult physical activity with perceived safety and police-recorded crime: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Model Exposure* Transport Walking** Leisure Walking**
Tertile 2 vs. 1 Tertile 3 vs. 1 Tertile 2 vs. 1 Tertile 3 vs. 1
1a How safe is neighborhood from crime
   1 or 2 - very safe 1.28 (0.72,2.27) 1.70 (1.08,2.68) 1.04 (0.59,1.83) 1.53 (0.90,2.61)
   3 - safe 1.06 (0.66,1.69) 1.45 (0.92,2.27) 1.14 (0.69,1.86) 1.32 (0.80,2.20)
   4 or 5 - not safe 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Incivilities(total) ***
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.72 (1.10,2.69) 1.09 (0.68,1.76) 1.24 (0.80,1.92) 1.00 (0.66,1.53)
   2nd tertile 1.14 (0.73,1.78) 0.95 (0.58,1.54) 1.07 (0.70,1.63) 1.11 (0.74,1.66)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1b How safe is neighborhood from crime
   1 or 2 - very safe 1.31 (0.74,2.32) 1.70 (1.07,2.72) 1.09 (0.62,1.90) 1.55 (0.92,2.64)
   3 - safe 1.06 (0.67,1.70) 1.44 (0.90,2.29) 1.15 (0.70,1.88) 1.34 (0.81,2.20)
   4 or 5 - not safe 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Criminal offenses (total) ***
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.38 (0.86,2.20) 1.10 (0.66,1.84) 0.83 (0.56,1.24) 0.88 (0.57,1.35)
   2nd tertile 1.05 (0.66,1.68) 1.11 (0.75,1.63) 0.69 (0.44,1.08) 0.74 (0.46,1.19)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
1c How safe is neighborhood from crime
   1 or 2 - very safe 1.41 (0.80,2.49) 1.73 (1.08,2.76) 1.09 (0.62,1.90) 1.57 (0.90,2.76)
   3 - safe 1.11 (0.70,1.78) 1.49 (0.93,2.37) 1.17 (0.71,1.92) 1.33 (0.80,2.21)
   4 or 5 - not safe 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Homicide (total) ***
   none 0.86 (0.52,1.43) 0.77 (0.49,1.20) 0.87 (0.53,1.43) 0.85 (0.50,1.46)
   yes (<median of none zero data) 0.91 (0.42,1.97) 0.47 (0.21,1.03) 0.78 (0.35,1.72) 0.89 (0.36,2.18)
   yes (> = median of none zero data) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
2a Violence is a problem in neighborhood
   Not really problem 1.02 (0.52,2.00) 0.78 (0.47,1.29) 1.44 (0.83,2.50) 1.98 (1.15,3.42)
   Minor problem 1.00 (0.50,1.99) 1.00 (0.60,1.67) 1.17 (0.63,2.16) 1.88 (1.12,3.17)
   Somewhat/Very serious problem 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Incivilities (total) ***
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.75 (1.12,2.72) 1.12 (0.70,1.80) 1.18 (0.77,1.83) 1.02 (0.66,1.55)
   2nd tertile 1.14 (0.73,1.78) 0.92 (0.56,1.51) 1.05 (0.69,1.60) 1.12 (0.75,1.67)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
2b Violence is a problem in neighborhood
   Not really problem 1.07 (0.55,2.07) 0.79 (0.47,1.31) 1.50 (0.87,2.57) 2.00 (1.17,3.42)
   Minor problem 1.00 (0.51,1.97) 1.00 (0.60,1.65) 1.16 (0.63,2.13) 1.89 (1.13,3.15)
   Somewhat/Very serious problem 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Criminal offenses (total) ***
   1st tertile (lowest crime) 1.44 (0.91,2.28) 1.16 (0.70,1.92) 0.79 (0.54,1.16) 0.91 (0.59,1.38)
   2nd tertile 1.07 (0.68,1.69) 1.14 (0.78,1.67) 0.68 (0.44,1.05) 0.74 (0.46,1.19)
   3rd tertile (highest crime) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
2c Violence is a problem in neighborhood
   Not really problem 1.10 (0.56,2.16) 0.78 (0.46,1.31) 1.48 (0.85,2.57) 2.00 (1.15,3.47)
   Minor problem 1.04 (0.52,2.09) 0.99 (0.59,1.64) 1.18 (0.64,2.17) 1.88 (1.12,3.14)
   Somewhat/Very serious problem 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Homicide (total) ***
   none 0.90 (0.54,1.49) 0.85 (0.54,1.34) 0.86 (0.52,1.40) 0.89 (0.53,1.50)
   yes (<median of none zero data) 0.95 (0.44,2.06) 0.48 (0.22,1.05) 0.82 (0.37,1.80) 0.90 (0.36,2.27)
   yes (> = median of none zero data) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
  1. ^ Adjusted for clustering using 2000 census block groups by applying generalized estimating equations.
  2. *All associations control for age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84), gender, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic.
  3. Chinese American), education (high school or less, college, graduate school), income (<35 k, 35 k- < 75 k, 75 k- < 100 k, > = 100 k), working status (yes or no), sidewalk presence in neighborhood (yes or no), length of residence in neighborhood (continuous), and distance to nearest public transportation (continuous).
  4. **Cutpoints of categorized physical activity outcomes in minutes/week:
  5. Transport walking: (1) <150, (2) 150- < 420, (3) > =420.
  6. Leisure walking: (1) <35, (2) 35- < 210, (3) > =210.
  7. ***Objectively measured normalized crimes were summarized over two years, which include the year the interview was performed and the previous year.
  8. Criminal offenses: Total: (1) <6.2, (2) 6.2- < 15.2, (3) > =15.2; Outdoor: (1) <4.8, (2) 4.8- < 11.6, (3) > =11.6.
  9. Incivilities: Total: (1) <27.8, (2) 27.8- < 54.6, (3) > =54.6; Outdoor: (1) <12.9, (2) 12.9- < 22.7, (3) > =22.7.
  10. Homicides: Total: (1) 0, (2) >0- < 0.9, (3) > =0.9; Outdoor: (1) 0, (2) >0- < 0.9, (3) > =0.9.