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Table 3 Agreement between measures of physical activity with comparable units in free living conditions

From: Direct and indirect measurement of physical activity in older adults: a systematic review of the literature

       Absolute Difference   
Author (Year) & Sample Comparison Measure 1 Mean (SD) Measure 2 Mean (SD) 1. Difference between means on each measure 2. Mean of differences % Agreement Limits of Agreement a
Ayabe (2008) part 2b. All older adults Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (LC; waist); steps·day-1 8449 (3790) Pedometer (YM; waist) steps·day-1 6798 (3569)   1652(862) n/a Not reported
Ayabe (2008) Part 2. Active older adults Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (LC; waist); steps·day-1 10736 (3465) Pedometer (YM; waist) steps·day-1 9017 (3125)   1719(883) n/a −46 to 3484
Ayabe (2008) Inactive older adults Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (waist); steps·day-1 5402(1071) Pedometer (waist) steps·day-1 3840 (1116)   1562(1719) n/a −164 to3289
Bergman (2009) part 2. Overall sample Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (SW3; waist) steps·day-1 1587 (1057) Pedometer (DW; ankle) steps·day-1 6420(3180) 4833   n/a  
Bergman (2009) part 2. Men Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (waist) steps·day-1 1180(420) Pedometer (ankle) 6565(1634) 5385    
Bergman (2009) part 2. Women Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (waist) steps·day-1 1767(1221) Pedometer (ankle) steps·day-1 steps·day-1 6356 (3762) 4589    
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Direct 7 Day Recall TEE kcal·day-1 2810.8 (618.4) DLW TEE 2,535.1 (585.2) 276   +10.8* −1075 to 1625 kcal·day-1
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Direct QAPSE TEE kcal·day-1 2177.1 (153.2) kcal·day-1 DLW TEE 2,535.1 (585.2) 358   −14.1* −1470 to 754 kcal·day-1
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Direct MLTPAQ EEPA kcal·day-1 490.9 (204.3) kcal·day-1 DLW EEPA 803.6 (463) kcal·day-1 313   −38.9* −1188 to 562 kcal·day-1
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Direct YPAS EEPA kcal·day-1 893.8 (395.8) kcal·day-1 DLW EEPA 803.6 (463) kcal·day-1 90   +11.3 −464 to 645 kcal·day-1
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Direct CAQ EEPA kcal·day-1 563.1(246.6) kcal·day-1 DLW EEPA 803.6 (463) kcal·day-1 240   −30.0* −1076 to 596 kcal·day-1
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Indirect 7 Day Recall TEE b 2810.8 (618.4) kcal·day-1 QAPSE TEE 2177.1 (153.2) kcal·day-1 634 Not reported Not applicable Unable to calculate because mean (and) difference between measures not provided
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Indirect YPAS EEPA 893.8 (395.8) kcal·day-1 MLTPAQ EEPA 490.9 (204.3) kcal·day-1 403 Not reported Not applicable Unable to calculate because mean (and) difference between measures not provided
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Indirect YPAS EEPA 893.8 (395.8) kcal·day- CAQ EEPA 563.1 (246.6) kcal·day-1 331 Not reported Not applicable Unable to calculate because mean (and) difference between measures not provided
Bonnefoy (2001). Men Indirect vs. Indirect MLTPAQ EEPA 490.9 (204.3) kcal·day-1 CAQ EEPA 563.1 (246.6) kcal·day-1 72 Not reported Not applicable Unable to calculate because mean (SD) difference between measures not provided
Conn (2000) Indirect vs. Direct Exercise EE (kcal/day) 388.85 (425.11) Accelerometer (kcal/day) 275.77 (138.10) 112.73 Not reported +40.1% Unable to calculate because mean (SD) difference not provided
Harada (2001). Mixed sample. Retirement home sample Indirect vs. Indirect YPAS EE kcal·week-1 2313 (2277) kcal·week-1 CHAMPS EE kcal·week-1 1548 (1767) kcal·week-1 765 Not reported Not applicable Unable to calculate because mean (SD) difference between measures not provided
Harada (2001). Mixed sample. Community Centre Sample Indirect vs. Indirect YPAS EE kcal·week-1 8125 (4125) kcal·week-1 CHAMPS EE kcal·week-1 3848 (2402) kcal·week-1 4641 Not reported   Unable to calculate because mean (SD) difference between measures not provided
Harris (2009). Men (2009) Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (SW-200) steps·day-1) 6991(3919) Accelerometer (Actigraph) steps·day-1 6931(3656) 60    
Harris (2009)) – Total Sample Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (SW-200) steps·day-1 6712 (3526) Accelerometer (Actigraph) steps·day-1 6668 (3404) 44    
Harris (2009) –Women Direct vs. Direct Pedometer (SW-200) steps·day-1) 6428 (3088) Accelerometer (Actigraph) steps·day-1 6401 (3136) 27    
Morio (1997) Men Direct vs. Indirect Activity log DEE (MH.day) 12.7 (2.2) Doubly labeled water (MJ/day) 12.8 (3.1)    −0.9 (11.8)% −13.9 to 17.7%
Morio (1997) Direct vs. Indirect Activity log DEE (MH.day) 12.7 (2.2) HR monitoring (MJ/day) 13.5 (2.7)    −5.9% Unable to calculate because mean (SD) difference not provided
Morio (1997) Women Direct vs. Indirect Activity log DEE (MJ/day) 8.8 (1.2) Doubly labeled water (MJ/day) 9.6(0.8)    −7.7 (12.7)% −21.9 to 12.3%
Morio (1997) Women Direct vs. Indirect Activity log DEE (MJ/day) 8.8 (1.2) HR monitoring (MJ/day) 10.2(1.5)    −13.7% Unable to calculate because mean (SD) difference not provided
Morio (1997) Men Direct vs. Direct HR monitoring (MJ/day) 13.5 (2.7) Doubly labeled water (MJ/day) 12.8 (3.1)    4.5 (14.4)% −9.0 to 32.3%
Morio (1997) Women Direct vs. Direct HR monitoring (MJ/day) 10.2(1.5) Doubly labeled water (MJ/day) 9.6(0.8)    5.9(8.8) −4.5 to 16.2%
Resnick (2008) – Senior Study Indirect vs. Indirect 6 month YPAS PA 26.4 (13.8) hrs·week-1 6 month CHAMPS PA 19.9(10.1) hrs·week-1 6.5    
Resnick (2008) – Senior Study Indirect vs. Indirect 6 month YPAS EEPA 5317.2 (2812) kcal·week-1 6 month CHAMPS EEPA 2979.0 (1719.9) kcal·week-1 2338.2    
Resnick (2008) – Senior Study Indirect vs. Indirect 6 month YPAS MPA 2.4(3.3) hrs·week-1 6 month CHAMPS MPA 5.7(5.5) hrs·week-1 3.3    
Resnick (2008) – Senior Study Indirect vs. Indirect 6 month YPAS EEMPA 742.7 (1090) kcal·week-1 6 month CHAMPS EEMPA 1030(1199.7) kcal·week-1 287.3    
Resnick (2008) –HIP study Indirect vs. Indirect Baseline, 6 & 12 month YPAS PA 30.0(27.7) 22.4(25.6) 21.4(21.3) Baseline, 6 & 12 month CHAMPS 8.3(7.7)l 8.9(8.2) 8.6(7.8) hrs·week-1 21.7; 13.5; 12.8    
Resnick (2008) –HIP study Indirect vs. Indirect Baseline, 6 & 12 month YPAS EEPA 6002.6 (7357.2); 4715.3 (7177.8); 4306.7 (6337.2) kcal·week-1 Baseline, 6 & 12 month CHAMPS EEPA 1451.2 (1418.2) 1445.9 (1324.8) 1474.0 (1426.0) kcal·week-1 4551.4 3269.4 2832.7    
Resnick (2008) –HIP study Indirect vs. Indirect Baseline, 6 & 12 month YPAS MPA 0.9(1.9); 2.3(3.6); 1.9(3.2) hrs·week-1 B Baseline, 6 & 12 month CHAMPS MPA 2.1(3.8); 1.9(3.0) 2.3(3.8) hrs·week-1 1.2; 0.4; 0.4    
Resnick (2008) –HIP study Indirect vs. Indirect Baseline, 6 & 12 month YPAS EEMPA 287.0 (569.2); 529.1 (1001.8); 662.0 (1143.8) kcal·week-1 Baseline, 6 & 12 month CHAMPS EEMPA 486.7(862.8); 409.1 (608.1) 493.3 (777.7) kcal·week-1 199.7; 120; 168.7    
Rutgers (1997) Indirect vs. Direct 24 hour recall 8.6(0.9) MJ/day TEE HRM (individual calibration curve) 8.8(3.5) MJ/day   0.2(3.0) −2.27 −6.22 to 5.85
Rutgers (1997) Indirect vs. Direct 24 hour recall 8.6(0.9) MJ/day TEE HRM (group calibration curve) 8.1(5.2) MJ/day   0.5(4.9) +6.2 −9.41 to 10.39
Rutgers (1997) Direct vs. Direct TEE HRM (group calibration curve) 8.1(5.2) MJ/day TEE HRM (individual calibration curve) 8.8(3.5) MJ/day   0.6(5.1) n/a −9.35 to 10.7
Seale (2002) Men Indirect vs. Direct DLW TEE 12.43(1.63) EE from PA (7 day recall) and weight 17.03(4.07)   4.60(3.64) +37.4(30.2) −2.68 to 11.88
Seale (2002) Men Indirect vs. Direct DLW TEE 12.43(1.63) EE from PA (7 day recall) and BMR 13.69(2.99)   1.26(2.63) +10.58(21.8) −4 to 6.52
Seale (2002) Men Indirect vs. Direct DLW TEE 12.43 (1.63) EE from PA (7 day recall) and RMR 13.69(3.23)   1.27(2.46) +9.8(19.9) −3.65 to 6.19
Seale (2002) Women Indirect vs. Direct DLW TEE 9.44(0.90) EE from PA (7 day recall) and weight 12.86(3.41)   3.42(3.69) +38.03(39.4) −3.96 to 10.8
Seale (2002) Women Indirect vs. Direct DLW TEE 9.44(0.90) EE from PA (7 day recall) and BMR 10.15(2.21)   0.71(2.59) +9.01(27.4) −4.47 to 5.89
Seale (2002) Women Indirect vs. Direct DLW TEE 9.44(0.90) EE from PA (7 day recall) and RMR 9.51(2.4)   0.07(2.76) +2.2(29.1) −5.45 to 5.59
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ total activity 93 (4,5) score 6 month CHAMPS PA 89 (3,6) score 4    
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ walking 14 (3,30) 6 month CHAMPS EEPA 28(18,38) 14    
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ bicycling 0(0,10) 6 month CHAMPS MPA 0(0,10) 0    
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ gardening 0(0,2) 6 month CHAMPS EEMPA 0(0,6) 0    
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ light household 42 (28,56) 7 day diary light household 35 (22,48) 7    
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ heavy household 4 (0,13) 7 day diary heavy household 6 (0,16) 2    
Stel (2004) Indirect vs Indirect LAPAQ Sports 2(0,16) 7 day diary Sports 0(0,9) 2    
Washburn (1990) Indirect vs Indirect BRFSS Standing light and moderate work 141.6 (153.9) min·day-1 Diary Standing light and moderate work 210.9 (107.3) min·day-1 8.085 hr/week    
Washburn (1990) Indirect vs Indirect BRFSS Slow walking 50.2(80.4) min·day-1 Diary Slow walking 54.2(38.7) min·day-1 0.467 hours/wk    
Washburn (1990) Indirect vs Indirect BRFSS Moderate walking 22.6(28.1) min·day-1 Diary Moderate walking 19.7(22.6) min·day-1 0.338 hours/wk    
Washburn (1990) Indirect vs Indirect BRFSS Light sport and recreation 9.9(26.7) min·day-1 Diary Light sport and recreation 11.9(31.3) min·day-1 0.233 hours/week    
Washburn (1990) Indirect vs Indirect BRFSS Moderate Sport and Recreation 3.9(7.2) min·day-1 Diary Moderate Sport and Recreation 4.1(11.1) min·day-1 0.023 hours/week    
Washburn (1990) Indirect vs Indirect BRFSS Total 228.4 (199.2) min·day-1 Diary total 300.9 (109.2) min·day-1 8.45 hours/week    
  1. a.Limits of agreement = mean different ± 2s, where s = standard deviation of the differences
  2. b.Study also examined step counts in younger adults (N=17). Only results specific to the older adult sample (N=28) are presented.