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Table 1 Summary of included quantitative studies

From: Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

+ Location of fieldwork Participants & sample recruitment Design Physical activity measures Translation Response rate Main findings
Dogra et al., 2010 Canada N = 347,229 Cross-sectional Self-report: 3 month recall of PA (metabolic equivalent calculation based on Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute cut-offs NA** NA SA less likely than Whites to engage in walking, endurance, recreation, and sport activities (SA: walking = 56.7%, endurance = 29.7%, recreation = 38.3%, sports = 24.3%; Whites: walking = 68.3%, endurance = 34.6%, recreation = 60.0%, sports = 28.8%). SA report more inactivity: 18.7%, Whites = 10.5%
N(male White) = 10729
N(female White) = 114,965
N(male SA*) = 1,708
N(female SA) = 1,576
Health Education Authority, 2000 UK N = 4,444 Cross-sectional Self-report: survey piloted and revised for clarity Translated into 7 languages 72% % reporting taking ‘regular exercise:
N(Indian) = 1,111 Indian = 71%
N(Pakistani) = 1,111 Pakistani = 63%
N(Bangladeshi = 1,111 Bangladeshi = 65%
N(Afro-Caribbean) = 1,111 % females reporting ‘very active’:
National Survey of Ethnic Minorities Indian = 17%
Pakistani = 18%
Bangladeshi = 17%
Hine et al., 1995 UK N = 547 (women only) Cross-sectional Self-report Translated into 7 languages 71% % currently doing exercise to keep healthy:
N(Pakistani) = 79 Pakistani: 1%, Indian: 6%, Bangladeshi: 12.5%
N(Indian) = 52
N(Bangladeshi) = 21
Identified from Family Health Services Authority and Electoral Register
Jonnalagadda & Diwan, 2002 US N = 237 Asian Indian men and women Cross-sectional Self-report: survey based on Kriska et al, 1997 NA 65% % reporting engaging in 1 or more of the 3 activities from PA index:
Identified from 10 community organizations South Indian = 70%
North Indian = 56%
West Indian = 65%
Kolt et al., 2007 New Zealand N = 112 Cross-sectional Objective measurement: New Lifestyles NL2000 pedometer NA NA 48% of total sample classified at sedentary (<5000 steps/day)
N(Asian Indian men) = 50 N(Asian Indian women) = 62 33% classified as active (>10,000 steps/day)
Identified from Auckland-based Asian Indian community organizations
Lean et al., 2001 UK N = 259 Cross-sectional Self-report NA 76% 18% of Migrant SA performed sport and exercise
N(Scotland general population) = 50 30% of British-born SA performed sport and exercise
N(immigrant SA ) = 63
N(UK-born SA ) = 56
N(immigrant Italians ) = 39
N(UK-born Italians ) = 51
Lip et al., 1996 UK N = 232 (women only) Cross-sectional Self-report of regular exercise Translated into 3 languages NA Lower proportion of exercisers among South Asians (X2 = 22.34, df = 2, p < 0.001)
N(White ) = 84
N(SA) = 72
N(Afro-Caribbean ) = 76
Recruited from City Hospital, Birmingham
Mahajan & Bermingham, 2004 Australia/India N = 250 Crosssectional Self-report: Based on the National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Survey NA 63% Total exercise hours/week: Men in Australia:17.3+/-25.5
N(SA Indians in Australia ) = 125 Men in India: 18.9+/-29.4 Women in Australia: 17.1+/-20.6
N(familial relatives in India ) = 125 Women in India: 33.5+/-36.9 (P < 0.001 referring to country of residence stratified by gender)
Recruited from Indian community centres in Sydney and referred familial relatives in India
McKeigue et al., 1992 UK N = 3,399 Cross-sectional Self-report Completed questionnaire checked by bilingual fieldworker NA Age-adjusted mean leisure time:
N(European men) = 1,506 SA: 3.0 MJ/week
N(SA men) = 1,360 European: 4.2 MJ/week P < 0.001
N(European women) = 245
N(SA women) = 288
Recruited from general practitioner’slists and industrial workforces in West London
Misra et al., 2005 US N = 56 SA Indian immigrants Cross-sectional Self-report: Minnesota LTPA*** questionnaire NA 80% Total activity mean in min/week
N = 31 men Men: 124.5+/-107.8
N = 25 women Women: 50.2+/-62.3
Recruited via general practitioner’s offices, community centres and media releases
Misra, 2004 US N = 261 Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants Cross-sectional Self-report: revised Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II NA   53.3% Follow exercise regime
N(men ) = 180 56.4.% of men
N(women ) = 81 52.5% of women
Significant difference between men and women (X2 = 14.1, p = 0.001)
Mohanty et al., 2005 US N = (White) 87,846 Cross-sectional Self-report: any vigorous activity 10-20 min at least once per week NA 80.4% in1997, 73.9% in 1998, 69.6% in 1999, 72.1% in 2000 % reporting never being active or active less than once/week:
N(SA Indian) = 555 White = 59.3%
National Health Interview Survey years 1997-2000 Asian Indian = 67% (p = .004)
O’Laughlin et al., 2007 Canada N = 2033 (42.2% male) Cross-sectional Self-report: ≥20 min. LTPA at least twice/week for 4 months NA NA % inactive (95%Confidence Interval)
N(French Canadian) = 575 French Canadian = 71.5% (67.6-75.1)
N(Portuguese) = 294 Portuguese = 80.5%(75.5-84.9)
N(Italian) = 122 Italian = 78.3%(69.9-85.3)
N(Eastern European) = 51 Eastern European = 58%(43.2-71.8)
N(SA) = 42 SA = 76.2%(60.6-88.0)
Data available from adult parents of children participating in an intervention in Montreal
Palaniappan et al., 2002 US N = 210 Cross-sectional Self-report NA 71.40% Years of regular exercise Caucasian: 6.2+/-4.0
N(Caucasian 0 = 67 African American: 4.0+/-4.2 SA Indian: 4.2+/-4.3 P = 0.0013
N(African American ) = 69
N(SA Indian ) = 70
Patel et al., 2006 UK/India N = 537 total Cross-sectional Objective Measurement: Caltrac accelerometers Bilingual fieldworkers conducted measurements 67% in Sandwell, 65% in Navsari Measured physical activity in Kcal/day (95% CI): Men in India:1820(1630-2000)
N(SA Indian men in UK ) = 119 Men in UK: 2350(2200-2490)
N(SA Indian men in India) = 139 Women in India: 1680(1540-1810) Women in UK: 1750(1640-1870)
N(SA Indian women in UK) = 123
N(SA Indian women in India) = 155
Recruited from community directories and local primary care registries in UK, from electoral roll from India
Pomerleau et al., 1999 UK N = 839 (women only) Cross-sectional Self-report Bilingual fieldworkerscollected data and translated during interview NA SA women walked least for transport compared to European and Afro-Caribbean: 22% vs 44% and 40%, respectively. 1% of SA women participated in sport and none cycled
N(European ) = 246
N(SA) = 291
N(Afro-Caribbean ) = 303
Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies, Southall and Brent surveys
Riste et al., 2001 UK N = 919 Crosssectional Self-report: validated questionnaire(Was hburn et al, 1990), PA reported over the past week Punjabi and Urdu interviewers available 65% % physically active defined as 3X20min/week (95% CI):
N(European ) = 471 Pakistani men = 6.8%(0-13)
N(Pakistani ) = 132 Pakistani women = 5.2%(0-11)
N(Afro-Caribbean ) = 316 European men = 37.8%(23-53)
Sampled from registers from local health centres European women = 29.4%(13-46)
Rudat, 1994 UK N = 2,619 Crosssectional Self-report   Indian = 77%, Pakistani = 80%, Bangladeshi = 9 1% successful as% of screened eligible respondents % reporting any activity: Indian = 46%, Pakistani = 41%, Bangladeshi = 37%
N(SA Indian ) = 1017
N(Pakistani ) = 935
N(Bangladeshi ) = 667
Sample available from 1981 census
Sinnapah et al., 2009 Guadeloupe N = 122 Crosssectional Self-report: 24-hour recall NA 93% Energy expenditure in Kcal +/-SD: SA Indian men: 2615+/-417
N(general population men) = 25 SA women: 2264+/-465
N(SA Indian men) = 27 Controls men: 2921+/-608
N(general population women) = 32 Controls women: 2481+/-627
N(SA women) = 30
Sampled from those workers who came in to attend annual medical check-up
Williams et al., 2010 UK N = 15,413 Observational longitudinal Self-report: 4 week recall Questions translated into 5 languages 69-76% % reporting no weekly physical activity(unadjusted):
N(White) = 13,293 White = 28.1%
N(SA Indian) = 1,244 Indian = 37.1%
N(Pakistani/Banglade shi ) = 876 Pakistani/Bangladeshi = 56.7% (p < 0.001)
Data available from Health Survey for England years 1999 and 2004
Williams et al., 2010a UK N = 1,948 Crosssectional Self-report: Based on IPAQ**** Questionnair e available in English and Punjabi 83% % reporting more than 3 hours sedentary/day:
N(White) = 818 SA = 45.6%
N(SA) = 1130 White = 47.5%
Recruited from London Life Sciences Prospective Population(LOLIPOP) study % reporting some physical activity:SA = 73.2%
White = 79.4%
Williams et al., 1994 UK N = 173 SA Crosssectional Self-report Bilingual interviewer and questionnaire available in 4 languages 80.5% % reporting ever taking vigorous exercise: SA Males = 46%, Male general population = 59% SA females = 38%, Female general population = 44% SA less likely to report ever taking vigorous exercise, difference statistically significant in men (p < 0.05)
N by sex unspecified
Sampled from electoral and valuation rolls in Glasgow
Yates et al., 2010 UK N = 5,474 Crosssectional Self-report: Short version of last seven-day self administered format of IPAQ English only 92% of white European, 69% of SA % in activity level category:
N(White men) = 2033 White Men: Low = 22%, Moderate = 28%, High = 50%
N(SA men) = 604 SA Men: Low = 37%, Moderate = 25%, High = 38%
N(White women) = 2277 White Women: Low = 27%, Moderate = 33%, High = 32%
N(SA women) = 560 SA Women: Low = 40%, Moderate = 28%, High = 32% (all significant at p < 0.01)
European -baseline data from ADDITION-Leicester study
Yates et al., 2012 UK N = 505 Crosssectional Self-report: Short version of last seven-day self administered format of IPAQ English only NA Total hours sitting time (hours/day):
N(White European Men) = 220 Men = 6.0(4.0-8.8)
N(White European Women) = 188 Women = 5.0(4.0-7.0)
N(South Asian Men) = 52 p for difference between genders <0.01
N(South Asian Women) = 45 Total MVPA + (METhours/week:
From subsample of the ADDITIONLeicester study from 2004-2007 Men = 46(17-108)
Women = 34(17-106)
p for difference between genders <0.01
Ye et al., 2009 US N = 77,267 Cross-sectional Self-report NA NA % reporting physical inactivity(unadjusted):
N(White) = 74,424 White = 37.2%, Asian
N(SA Indian) = 534 Indian = 41.8%, Other
N(Other Asian) = 1,117 Asian = 41.0% (X2 = 16.27, p = 0.04)
Aggregated data from the National Health Interview Survey 2003 to 2005
  1. *South Asian, **Information not available in article, *** Leisure time physical activity, ****International Physical Activity Questionnaire, +Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.