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Table 2 Associations with school factors in partially adjusted multilevel linear regression models predicting change in percentage of sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during school time (9-15h)

From: School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

Exposure variables Percentage prevalence/mean (SD) Sedentary (% change) Moderate (% change) Vigorous (% change)
   β Coefficient (95% CI) β Coefficient (95% CI) β Coefficient (95% CI)
School characteristics     
  Location town fringe (y/n [reference: urban])a 34.4% 0.84 (−0.52 – 2.21) −0.37 (−0.78 – 0.05) −0.09 (−0.39 – 0.20)
  Location village/hamlet dwelling (y/n [reference: urban])a 27.5% −1.14 (−2.40 – 0.12) 0.27 (−0.12 – 0.65) 0.26 (−0.01 – 0.53)
  Number of year 4 children in 2006 a 54.41 (34.29) 0.01 (−0.01 – 0.03) −0.00 (−0.01 – 0.01) −0.00 (−0.01 – 0.00)
  Participation in healthy school program (y/n)a 36.1% 0.94 (−0.33 – 2.21) −0.17 (−0.56 – 0.23) −0.12 (−0.41 – 0.16)
  Morning break length >15 minutes (y/n)b 13.8% −2.36 (−4.05 - -0.67)++ 0.84 (0.34 – 1.34)++ 0.64 (0.28 – 0.99)
+++
  Lunch break length (minutes)b 57.89 (6.68) −0.10 (−0.19 - -0.02)+ 0.03 (0.00 – 0.05) −0.00 (−0.02 – 0.02)
School policy     
  Breaks: allowed to play outside in bad weather (y/n)b 6.7% −0.40 (−2.89 – 2.08) 0.36 (−0.39 – 1.11) −0.11 (−0.65 – 0.43)
  Breaks: screen play allowed (y/n)b 65.3% 0.68 (−0.65 – 2.02) −0.27 (−0.68 – 0.14) 0.04 (−0.26 – 0.33)
  Breaks: ≥ 2 physical activities allowed (y/n)b 52.1% 0.01 (−1.23 – 1.26) 0.10 (−0.27 – 0.48) −0.24 (−0.51 – 0.02)
  Provide …physical activity information (y/n)b 87.4% 0.76 (−1.27 – 2.80) −0.09 (−0.72 – 0.53) −0.06 (−0.50 – 0.38)
      …health promotion information (y/n)b 78.3% 1.94 (0.44 – 3.44)+ −0.39 (−0.86 – 0.07) −0.33 (−0.67 – -0.00)+
      …risks of unhealthy lifestyle information (y/n)b 72.1% 1.00 (−0.40 – 2.39) −0.22 (−0.65 – 0.20) −0.09 (−0.39 – 0.21)
  Hours of physical education b 2.08 (0.49) 1.52 (0.35 – 2.69)+ −0.28 (−0.64 – 0.08) −0.10 (−0.36 – 0.17)
  Extracurricular PA available lunch breaks (y/n)b 70.7% 1.14 (−0.13 – 2.42) −0.36 (−0.74 – 0.03) −0.27 (−0.55 – 0.00)
School facilities     
  Existence of …gym facility (y/n)b 58.3% −0.34 (−1.66 – 0.97) 0.17 (−0.22 – 0.57) 0.28 (−0.00 – 0.56)
         …indoor sports facility (y/n)b 58.6% −0.45 (−1.81 – 0.90) −0.00 (−0.41 – 0.41) −0.11 (−0.39 – 0.18)
         … sports field/pitch facility (y/n)b 94.5% −0.39 (−3.14 – 2.37) −0.18 (−1.02 – 0.65) 0.20 (−0.40 – 0.79)
         … pool facility (y/n)b 38.6% −0.31 (−1.60 – 0.99) 0.17 (−0.23 – 0.56) 0.04 (−0.24 – 0.32)
         … changing facilities (y/n)b 55.8% 1.24 (0.02 – 2.45)+ −0.41 (−0.78 – -0.05)+ −0.27 (−0.53 – -0.00)+
         … play equipment (y/n)b 95.1% 3.71 (0.06 – 7.36)+ −0.47 (−1.61 – 0.68) −0.05 (−0.86 – 0.75)
         … sports equipment (y/n)b 98.7% 9.04 (3.93 – 14.16)++ −3.52 (−5.00 – -2.04)+++ −2.52 (−3.54 – -1.50)+++
  Use of local park or playground (y/n)b 16.1% −0.30 (−1.90 – 1.30) 0.13 (−0.35 – 0.62) 0.21 (−0.14 – 0.56)
   Medium or high quality of sports facilities (y/n)b 75.7% 1.01 (−0.39 – 2.42) −0.46 (−0.90 – -0.01)+ −0.29 (−0.59 – 0.01)
  Physical activity facility score (max: 17)c 8.30 (1.91) 0.06 (−0.28 – 0.39) −0.03 (−0.14 – 0.07) −0.05 (−0.12 – 0.02)
  Other facility score (max: 12)c 3.49 (1.59) −0.08 (−0.48 – 0.32) 0.02 (−0.10 – 0.15) −0.04 (−0.13 – 0.04)
School grounds     
  Playground area (km2)b 11.82 (7.38) 0.07 (−0.01 – 0.15) −0.02 (−0.04 – 0.00) −0.01 (−0.03 – 0.01)
  School ground score (min: 1, max: 10)c 9.14 (0.80) −0.12 (−0.92 – 0.68) 0.02 (−0.21 – 0.26) −0.05 (−0.22 – 0.13)
  Aesthetics score (min: 3, max: 28)c 21.54 (2.24) −0.11 (−0.39 – 0.16) 0.02 (−0.06 – 0.11) 0.03 (−0.03 – 0.09)
  1. + p<0.05; ++ p<0.01; +++ p<0.001.
  2. All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parental education, ethnicity and the baseline value of physical activity.
  3. a Factors derived by the Norfolk County Council (%=yes); b Factors derived by the school questionnaire (%=yes); c Factors derived by the audit tool; minimum score = 0 unless stated otherwise.