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Table 4 Results from fully-adjusted multivariable multilevel linear regressions for changes in sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity (PA), during school time (9-15h) and travel time (8–9, 15-16h)*

From: School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

Time period Predictors of activity intensity change β Coefficient 95% CI p-value ICC
School time (9-15h) Sedentary time change     0.090+++
    Constant 18.95 3.76 – 34.13 0.014  
    Morning break length >15 minutes (y/n)b −2.52 −4.00 - -1.04 0.001  
    Lunch break length (minutes)b −0.08 −0.16 - -0.00 0.037  
    Provide health promotion information (y/n)b 1.93 0.72 – 3.15 0.002  
    Hours of physical education b 1.27 0.23 – 2.31 0.016  
    Existence of play equipment (y/n)b 3.29 0.51 – 6.07 0.020  
    Existence of sports equipment (y/n)b 7.15 2.81 – 11.49 0.001  
  Moderate activity change     0.135+++
    Constant 5.38 1.49 – 9.27 0.007  
    Morning break length >15 minutes (y/n)b 0.68 0.23 – 1.13 0.003  
    Lunch break length (minutes) b 0.03 0.00 – 0.05 0.018  
    Existence of changing facilities (y/n)b −0.33 −0.64 - -0.02 0.035  
    Existence of sports equipment (y/n)b −2.71 −4.10 - -1.33 <0.001  
  Vigorous activity change     0.071+++
    Constant 7.62 4.48 – 10.77 <0.001  
    Morning break length >15 minutes (y/n)b 0.52 0.19 – 0.85 0.002  
    Provide health promotion information (y/n)b −0.38 −0.66 - -0.11 0.006  
    Existence of sports equipment (y/n)b −2.15 −3.13 - -1.17 <0.001  
Travel time (8–9, 15-16h) Sedentary time change     0.002
    Constant 37.10 19.42 – 54.79 <0.001  
    Number of year 4 children in 2006 a −0.02 −0.03 - -0.00 0.030  
    Provide physical activity information (y/n)b −2.02 −3.81 - -0.22 0.027  
    Provide health promotion information (y/n)b 2.15 0.61 – 3.68 0.006  
    Extracurricular PA available weekends (y/n)b −1.35 −2.47 - -0.23 0.018  
    Existence of safe places to cross roads (y/n)b −1.61 −2.73 - -0.49 0.005  
  Moderate activity change     
    Constant −2.76 −13.20 – 7.67 0.604 <0.001
    Number of year 4 children in 2006 a 0.02 0.01 – 0.03 <0.001  
    Provide physical activity information (y/n)b 1.15 0.10 – 2.21 0.033  
    Provide health promotion information (y/n)b −0.93 −1.84 - -0.03 0.043  
    Extracurricular PA available weekends (y/n)b 0.68 0.02 – 1.34 0.044  
    Existence of a lollypop person (y/n)b 0.68 0.04 – 1.33 0.039  
    Existence of safe places to cross roads (y/n)b 0.83 0.12 – 1.54 0.022  
  Vigorous activity change     0.016
    Constant 5.63 0.72 – 10.54 0.025  
    Number of year 4 children in 2006 a 0.01 0.00 – 0.01 0.044  
    Existence of safe places to cross roads (y/n)b 0.56 0.22 – 0.90 0.001  
  1. *All models were adjusted for sex, age, BMI, parental education, ethnicity and the baseline value of physical activity.
  2. a Factors derived by the Norfolk County Council;b Factors derived by the school questionnaire;c Factors derived by the audit tool; minimum score = 0 unless stated otherwise;d Factors derived by GIS, +++ Significant at 0.001 level.