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Table 3 Methodological characteristics (assessment) of three key SDT-based intervention trials for PA promotion.

From: Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

Descriptor PAC Trial Empower Trial PESO Trial
Main SDT components - The PAC 7A's model of behavioural counseling steps [32] shared between HCP & PA counselor (autonomy-supportive)
- First 4 A's (BPAC): Address, Ask, Advice, & Assess/Agree (with PA prescription).
- Last 3 A's (IPAC): Assess, Assist, and Arrange.
- IPAC: values interview b, PA goals (discuss, support, encourage), problem solving (barriers), enjoyment enhancement, discussing relapse & suggestions for maintenance.
- Autonomy supportive protocol for health counsellors [36].
- Individualized discussions: risk/benefits, integration of PA with life valuesb, perceptions of barriers/resources for change.
- HFA: listening, parroting/paraphrasing, handling resistance, double sided reflection. b
- Failure normalization & recalibration of implementation plans (HFA & patient together).
- Targeting feelings during PA.
- HFA support of patient internalisation of PA involvement.
- Promoting sense of ownership & an internal locus of causality: choice & self-initiation, congruence of values, life goals, lifestyles.b
- Structure: safety, goals, PA monitoring, barriers, positive feedback (informational).
- Provision of options and decisions for PA; encouraging enjoyment, self-initiation, & independent problem solving.
-Exploration of participants' own motivations & goals.
Main SDT outcomes (i) Quantity of motivation; (ii) perceived competence; (iii) autonomous motivation; (iv) PA motivation/regulations;
(v) perceptions of autonomy support (climate)
(i) PA motivation/regulations;
(ii) perceptions of PA-based needs satisfaction (competence, autonomy, relatedness);
(iii) perceptions of autonomy support (climate);
(i) Perceptions of need-support (climate); (ii) treatment & exercise autonomous regulations; (iii) PA participation motives; (iv) locus of causality; (v) perceived competence & enjoyment for PA.
Main SDT-based measures (i) graded approach;a (ii) per- ceived competence in exercise scale [45]; (iii) TSRQ [45];
(iv) BREQ-2 [44]; (v) HCCQ [45].
(i) BREQ-2 [44]; (ii) Psy-chological Needs in Exercise Scale [55]; (iii) HCCQ [45]. (i) HCCQ [45]; (ii) Treatment and Exercise Self-Regulation Questionnaire [64, 65]; (iii) EMI-2 [66]; (iv) the Exercise Locus of Causality scale [67]; (v) Intrinsic Motivation Inventory [68].
Assessment time points BPAC & IPAC: Baseline, 6-, 13-, 19-, & 25-weeks Control/intervention: Baseline, 3- & 6-months Control/intervention: baseline, 4- months, 1-, 2-, & 3-year
  1. Abbreviations: SDT = Self-determination theory; BPAC = Brief physical activity counselling; IPAC = Intensive physical activity counselling; HCP = Health care provider(s); PA = physical activity; HFA = health and fitness advisor; TSRQ = Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire; BREQ-2 = Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2; HCCQ = Health Care Climate Questionnaire; EMI-2 = Exercise Motivation Inventory-2
  2. aSee PAC section for description
  3. bElements borrowed from motivational interviewing (MI)
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