Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Questionnaire means, standard deviations ( SD ), item kurtosis values, and Mardia’s coefficient of multivariate kurtosis

From: Development and evaluation of social cognitive measures related to adolescent dietary behaviors

Constructs Description Source of modified items Range (No. items) T1 (Baseline) T2 (2 week retest)
Mean ± (SD) Item kurtosis Mardia (z) Mean ± (SD) Item kurtosis Mardia (z)
Self-efficacy Participants were asked to rate confidence in their ability to adopt and overcome barriers to healthy eating behaviors. Scale: 1 = Disagree a lot: 6 = Agree a lot.E.g.: “I find it easy to eat at least 3 servings of fruit each day”.   1-6 (7) 4.07 ± (0.81) −1.06 to 2.38 4.91* 4.25 ± (0.80) −1.03 to 1.80 2.53
Intentions Participants were asked to indicate their intentions to eat healthily, starting with the common stem “In the next 3 months do you intend to…” Scale: 1 = Not at all true of me: 4 = Very true of me. E.g.: “…do you intend to choose low-fat foods and drinks whenever you have the choice?”   1-4 (5) 3.11 ± (0.52) −0.64 to 0.61 4.87* 3.20 ± (0.55) −0.54 to 0.90 7.15*
Situation Participants were asked to respond to statements about their mental representation of the physical environment influencing their ability to eat healthy foods. Scale: 1 = Disagree a lot: 6 = Agree a lot. Example item: “At home there are healthy drinks available – e.g. cold water, sugar-free drinks, reduced fat milk”.   1-6 (4) 5.42 ± (0.56) −0.16 to 2.57 15.01* 5.43 ± (0.58) 0.03 to 3.83 20.97*
Behavioral strategies Participants were asked to rate the frequency at which they rein- forced their own healthy eating behaviors through setting goals, self-monitoring and strategies for enhancing enjoyment, starting with the common stem “In the past 3 months how often…”. Scale: 1 = Never: 5 = Always. E.g.: “…did you choose reduced-fat options when they were available?” [21] 1-5 (6) 3.24 ± (0.71) −0.95 to 0.00 −0.02 3.33 ± (0.74) −0.93 to −0.31 2.08
Social support Participants were asked to rate the frequency with which family reinforced healthy eating through encouragement, role modeling, and accessibility to healthy foods, starting with the common stem “In the past 3 months how often…”. Scale: 1 = Never: 5 = Always. E.g.: “…did your parents encourage you to eat fruit and/or vegetables?” [21] 1-5 (5) 4.29 ± (0.54) −0.39 to 6.02 15.17* 4.30 ± (0.59) −0.69 to 7.29 22.23*
Outcome expectations Participants were asked to respond to statements about various benefits of healthy eating. Scale: 1 = Disagree a lot: 6 = Agree a lot. E.g.: “Healthy eating (e.g. not skipping meals) can help to improve my concentration at school”. [22, 23] 1-6 (5) 5.33 ± (0.51) −0.06 to 4.02 19.05* 5.35 ± (0.49) −0.67 to 6.54 16.15*
Outcome expectancies Participants were asked to rate personal value placed on each corresponding outcome expectation item for healthy eating. Scale: 1 = Not at all important: 4 = Extremely important E.g.: “How important is improving concentration at school to you?”   1-4 (5) 3.40 ± (0.44) −0.71 to 1.57 4.32* 3.43 ± (0.45) −0.70 to 2.18 6.28*
  1. Note. *Where Mardia’s coefficient for multivariate kurtosis indicate questionnaires which violate the assumption of multivariate normality (>3), the Bollen-Stine bootstrap procedure is employed to examine model fit.