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Table 5 Associations of census tract characteristics with the likelihood of classification match by retailer type

From: Classification bias in commercial business lists for retail food stores in the U.S.

  Food store type  
  Supermarket Grocery store Supermarket/Grocery store Convenience store Specialty food store
D&B      
Hispanic 0.4001 1.2639 2.2590** 2.7429*** 4.4450***
  (0.2408) (0.5151) (0.7506) (0.9268) (1.7615)
Black 1.0559 0.7499 0.9300 0.2932*** 0.7735
  (0.6008) (0.2940) (0.3564) (0.1030) (0.2724)
Mixed race 1.4113 0.5684 0.696 0.8327 1.563
  (0.6114) (0.1852) (0.2336) (0.2491) (0.4864)
Middle income 1.0653 0.966 0.9794 0.841 0.7884
  (0.4812) (0.2646) (0.2494) (0.2053) (0.2044)
High income 1.2031 1.3043 1.7405 1.0486 0.6093
  (0.6431) (0.5068) (0.6929) (0.3510) (0.2013)
N 612 612 612 612 612
InfoUSA      
Hispanic –  † –  † 1.4512 1.4859 4.9112***
  –  † –  † (0.4282) (0.4627) (1.7188)
Black –  † –  † 0.8169 0.5092** 1.6063
  –  † –  † (0.3096) (0.1632) (0.5585)
Mixed race –  † –  † 0.8103 1.2273 1.1900
  –  † –  † (0.2522) (0.3545) (0.3436)
Middle income –  † –  † 1.5333 1.0041 1.022
  –  † –  † (0.4128) (0.2352) (0.2509)
High income –  † –  † 1.4804 1.5749 1.1167
  –  † –  † (0.5057) (0.4952) (0.3417)
N –  † –  † 729 729 729
  1. † Not applicable because InfoUSA does not allow separately identifying supermarket from grocery stores.
  2. ‡ ** significant at the 5% level, *** significant at the 1% level.
  3. § White tracts, non-Hispanic tracts, and low income tracts were reference groups.