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Table 4 Rate ratios (95% Confidence Interval) of facilities by ethnic concentration adjusted for area deprivation b

From: Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?

Ethnic concentration tertilesa Fast food outlets Supermarkets Indoor physical activity Outdoor physical activity
White British     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 0.88 (0.77,1.00) 1.22 (1.08,1.38) 1.06 (1.00,1.12) 1.25 (1.18,1.33)
High 0.80 (0.70,0.92) 1.16 (1.02,1.32) 1.01 (0.96,1.08) 1.24 (1.16,1.32)
Black African     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.04 (0.89,1.22) 1.21 (1.02,1.43) 1.13 (1.06,1.20) 1.04 (0.98,1.10)
High 1.55 (1.33,1.81) 1.51 (1.28,1.77) 1.54 (1.44,1.64) 1.18 (1.11,1.26)
Black Caribbean     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.17 (1.00,1.35) 1.05 (0.90,1.23) 0.92 (0.87,0.97) 0.89 (0.85,0.93)
High 1.29 (1.10,1.51) 1.14 (0.98,1.33) 0.95 (0.88,1.02) 0.83 (0.78,0.88)
Indian     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.18 (1.03,1.36) 1.14 (0.99,1.31) 1.11 (1.06,1.16) 0.97 (0.94,1.01)
High 1.54 (1.34,1.76) 1.56 (1.36,1.79) 1.29 (1.23,1.36) 0.97 (0.93,1.01)
Pakistani     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.20 (1.03,1.41) 1.33 (1.13,1.58) 1.06 (1.00,1.12) 1.00 (0.95,1.05)
High 1.47 (1.26,1.72) 1.61 (1.36,1.89) 1.11 (1.05,1.18) 0.91 (0.86,0.96)
Bangladeshi     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.11 (0.92,1.33) 1.21 (0.99,1.48) 0.96 (0.90,1.03) 0.89 (0.83,0.95)
High 1.28 (1.06,1.55) 1.56 (1.28,1.91) 1.08 (0.99,1.17) 0.87 (0.80,0.94)
Chinese     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.46 (1.26,1.69) 1.47 (1.26,1.71) 1.27 (1.21,1.33) 1.04 (1.01,1.07)
High 2.13 (1.84,2.47) 2.05 (1.77,2.36) 1.74 (1.65,1.83) 1.09 (1.05,1.13)
Irish     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Moderate 1.06 (0.93,1.20) 1.25 (1.10,1.42) 1.16 (1.12,1.21) 1.03 (0.99,1.07)
High 1.55 (1.37,1.76) 1.60 (1.42,1.82) 1.43 (1.37,1.50) 1.15 (1.09,1.20)
  1. a Ethnic specific tertiles measured as percentage (range-see Table 2).
  2. b Rate ratios were estimated using a two level Poisson model (LSOAs nested within LAs), with random intercepts, taking into account population size and adjusted for deprivation. Low concentration = reference.