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Table 4 Probit, and linear regression estimates for the association between demographic, built environment, reasons for moving to a new neighborhood (preferences), and attitude and neighborhood-based total walking (transportation and recreation combined)

From: The association between sidewalk length and walking for different purposes in established neighborhoods

  Probit models for participation in any walking in the neighborhood (n = 1681) Linear models for weekly minutes of total walking in the neighborhood (walkers only n = 1049)
  Probit (95CI) 1 Probit (95CI) 2 Marginal (%) 2 B (95CI) 1 B (95CI) 3 Heckman-corrected B (95CI) 3
Built environment       
Walkability index 0.027 (−0.010, 0.064) 0.032 (−0.007, 0.070) 1.11 −0.11 (−4.58, 4.35) 0.29 (−4.09, 4.67) 1.13 (−13.35, 15.61)
Sidewalk length (per 10 km) 0.024 (−0.025, 0.074) 0.019 (−0.033, 0.071) 0.66 5.88 (0.17, 11.58)* 4.72 (−0.93, 10.36) 5.26 (−0.60, 11.13)Ω
Attitude and neighborhood preferences
Attitude towards walking   0.071 (0.054, 0.089)* 2.49   5.90 (3.71, 8.10)* 8.03 (3.25, 12.80)*
Access to recreation   0.251 (0.146, 0.356)* 8.75   11.05 (−0.90, 23.00) Ω 16.39 (0.23, 32.54)*
Access to schools   −0.036 (−0.108, 0.035) −1.27   −12.11 (−19.99, −4.22)* −13.86 (−18.63, −9.09)*
Access to services   −0.080 (−0.190, 0.031) −2.78    
Streets pedestrian/cycle friendly   0.270 (0.160, 0.380)* 9.42   11.60 (0.47, 22.74)* 16.13 (7.36, 24.89)*
Housing affordability/variety   −0.225 (−0.346, −0.103)* −7.83    
Inverse Mills Ratio       50.64
Rho       0.41
  1. 1Adjusted for gender, age, education, walkability and sidewalks.
  2. 2Adjusted for gender, age, education, walkability and sidewalks, neighborhood preferences, and attitude correlates.
  3. 3Adjusted for gender, age, education, walkability and sidewalks and for preference and attitude variables with statistically significant bivariate associations with walking.
  4. B: Unstandardized regression coefficient. 95CI: 95% confidence interval. *p < .05; Ωp < .10.