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Table 2 Association between neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play: multivariate analyses a

From: Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics: a cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

  Possible range Age 4–6 years b Age 7–9 years Age 10–12 years b
   Boys (n = 637) Girls (n = 611) Boys (n = 692) Girls (n = 665) Boys (n = 520) Girls (n = 526)
Confounders
Age (years) 3-13 b - - - - - -
Parental education level 1-8 - - 0.95 (0.93-0.98) 0.94 (0.91-0.97) 0.94 (0.92-0.96) 0.96 (0.93-1.00)
Buildings
Residential density 198-368 c - - - - - -
Land use mix 0-100% - - - - - -
Presence of unoccupied houses 0-4 - - - - - -
Maintenance of houses 1-3 - - - - 0.88 (0.83-0.93)  
Outdoor play facilities
Number of formal outdoor play facilities per km2 1.99 – 51.85 c - - 0.99 (0.99-1.00) 0.99 (0.98-0.99) 0.99 (0.99-1.00) 0.99 (0.98-1.00)
Quality of formal outdoor play facilities 0.00-1.00 - - - - - -
Public space
Presence of green space 0-3 - - - - - -
Quality of green space 0.00-1.00 - - - - - -
Presence of water 0-3 - - - - - -
Quality of water 0.00-1.00 - - - - - -
Street pattern
Presence of sidewalks 0-3 1.44 (1.16-1.18) 1.66 (1.39-1.99) - - - 1.45 (1.05-2.01)
Quality of sidewalks 0.00-1.00 - - - - - -
Presence of bike lanes 0-3 - - - - - -
Quality of bike lanes 0.25-1.00 - - - - - -
Traffic safety
Presence of pedestrian crossings without traffic lights 0-3 - 1.14 (1.01-1.28) 1.20 (1.11-1.29) - - -
Presence of pedestrian crossings with traffic lights 0-3 1.13 (1.08-1.19) -   0.79 (0.67-0.92) - -
Presence of traffic lights 0-3 - - - 1.48 (1.28-1.72) - -
Presence of refuges / safety islands 0-3 - - 0.89 (0.85-0.93) - 0.96 (0.93-1.00) -
Presence of parallel parking places 0-3 - - - - 1.17 (1.07-1.28) -
Presence of parking lots (grouped) 0-3 - - 1.28 (1.18-1.38) - - -
Presence of speed bumps 0-3 - - 1.25 (1.13-1.37) - - -
Presence of home zones 0-3 1.06 (1.02-1.11) - - - - -
Presence of 30 km/ hour zones 0-3 - - 0.82 (0.76-0.89) - 0.91 (0.86-0.97) -
Presence of roundabouts 0-3 1.14 (1.07-1.22) - 1.15 (1.06-1.24) 1.12 (1.01-1.25) 1.10 (1.04-1.16) -
Presence of intersections 0-3 0.82 (0.74-0.91) 0.78 (0.66-0.91) 0.81 (0.73-0.90) 0.78 (0.69-0.88) 0.87 (0.79-0.97) -
Traffic volume and speed 0-18 - - - - - -
Social environment
Presence of dog walking area 0-1 - - - - - -
Presence of litter basket for dog waste 0-1 - - - - - -
Presence of graffiti 0-3 - - - - - -
Presence of vandalism 0-3 - - - - - -
Presence of street lighting 0-1 0.78 (0.97-0.86) - - - - -
Presence of dark spaces 0-3 - - - - - -
General impression
General impression 1-10 - - - - - -
  1. a Values are relative rates (95% confidence intervals). Only significant associations are shown (p-value < 0.05), if the confidence interval contains the value 1.00, this was due to rounding off.
  2. b In The Netherlands, children aged 4–12 years are educated at the same primary school. In the current study sample, two children in the lowest age groups were aged 3 years and 8 children in the highest age groups were aged 13 years. These children were included in the lowest (4–6 years) and highest (10–12 years) age groups, respectively.
  3. c For the variables residential density and number of outdoor play facilities per km2, the actual range instead of the possible range is shown.