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Table 3 Error in estimate of number of calories purchased, Philadelphia vs. Baltimore

From: Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

  Philadelphia Baltimore Difference-in-Difference
Pre- Post- Pre- Post- Unadj. Odds ratio P
(95% CI)
Percent
Error in estimate of number of calories (kcal) purchased
Full sample, correct within 100 kcal
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 11.9 14.4 25.6 15.3    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 18.9 15.5 10.2 14.2    
  Underestimated by >100 kcal 69.2 70.0 64.2 70.5 −5.4 0.90 (0.67-1.21) 0.48
Full sample, correct within 250 kcal
  Overestimated by >250 kcal 9.6 10.3 21.6 11.7    
  Correctly estimated within 250 kcal 32.6 34.8 29.7 33.9    
  Underestimated by >250 kcal 57.9 54.9 48.7 54.5 −8.7 0.82 (0.65-1.04) 0.095
Full sample, correct within 500 kcal
  Overestimated by >500 kcal 6.8 5.6 14.5 7.3    
  Correctly estimated within 500 kcal 53.6 58.8 53.3 55.6    
  Underestimated >500 kcal 39.6 35.6 32.2 37.1 −8.8 0.75 (0.73-0.77) <0.001***
Purchased >850 kcal (median)
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 9.8 11.1 25.0 8.5    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 7.3 4.8 3.4 6.2    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 82.9 84.1 71.6 85.3 −12.5 1.27 (1.03-1.56) 0.028*
Purchased ≤850 kcal (median)
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 14.3 17.4 26.3 21.7    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 31.7 25.2 17.7 21.7    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 54.0 57.5 55.9 56.6 2.7 0.54 (0.37-0.78) 0.001**
Male
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 12.0 16.2 20.7 14.0    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 17.5 16.6 9.9 14.4    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 70.4 67.3 69.5 71.6 −5.3 0.81 (0.60-1.08) 0.15
Female
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 11.4 13.2 21.9 17.5    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 20.5 13.6 8.8 14.3    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 68.2 73.3 69.3 68.2 6.2 1.38 (1.25-1.53) <0.001***
Black
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 12.0 15.3 25.4 15.0    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 22.2 16.1 8.6 13.5    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 65.9 68.5 66.0 71.6 −2.9 0.96 (0.60-1.52) 0.86
White
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 13.9 14.7 26.4 17.4    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 14.8 10.5 13.8 16.3    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 71.3 74.7 59.8 66.3 −3.1 1.29 (0.85-1.96) 0.22
High school or less
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 8.6 12.1 26.5 11.9    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 21.4 14.8 9.0 13.0    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 70.0 73.1 64.5 75.1 −7.6 0.82 (0.60-1.13) 0.22
Some college or AA
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 13.6 18.7 21.4 20.0    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 15.7 17.1 7.9 16.4    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 70.7 64.2 70.8 63.6 0.7 1.16 (0.93-1.44) 0.18
BA or above
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 14.6 20.9 26.5 23.4    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 12.7 18.6 16.3 14.9    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 72.7 60.5 57.1 61.7 −16.8 0.25 (0.12-0.50) <0.001***
Food only
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 10.4 16.7 25.2 15.3    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 19.8 16.1 10.3 19.6    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 69.8 67.3 64.5 65.0 −3.0 0.88 (0.44-1.81) 0.77
Beverage only
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 14.6 20.9 26.5 23.4    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 12.7 18.6 16.3 14.9    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 72.7 60.5 57.1 61.7 −16.8 1.71 (0.12-12.76) 0.63
Purchased 1 item
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 12.6 17.5 27.5 18.2    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 40.2 32.9 24.5 24.2    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 47.1 49.6 48.0 57.6 −7.0 0.73 (0.34-1.60) 0.44
Purchased >1 item
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 11.8 13.4 25.0 14.5    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 14.1 9.6 5.1 11.2    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 74.2 77.1 69.9 74.3 −1.5 0.97 (0.81-1.15) 0.72
Purchased combination meal
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 15.8 8.8 21.0 8.9    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 6.9 5.1 2.0 5.4    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 77.2 86.1 77.0 85.7 0.2 1.23 (1.05-1.44) 0.012*
Did not purchase combination meal
  Overestimated by >100 kcal 10.8 16.4 27.2 17.5    
  Correctly estimated within 100 kcal 22.2 19.1 12.9 17.2    
  Underestimated >100 kcal 66.9 64.5 59.9 65.2 −7.8 0.84 (0.61-1.16) 0.29
  1. Unadj.,Unadjusted. kcal: Calories.
  2. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, *P < 0.05.